Invocation

Om. May no harm be done here, may the vessels of the great Seers continue in salvation, may these movements be in accord with Divine Will, may this desire be motivated by Love, may what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

 

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Revised 29th September 2016

 

Chapter two

The bee sustains the honey.  The honey feeds the bee.
Man's desire sustains the universe.  The universe feeds man's desire. section 5

Section 1.

The Universe was explained in chapter one as consisting of name and form only.
Due to the truth of the transcendent Absolute being forgotten the resulting ignorance has led to the belief,  dependent on the senses, of a material reality,  this is imagined to contain a divinity with attributes,  it is the Brahman of the ignorant.

Chapter two starts here with Gargya describing to Ajatasatru who is our Sage of this section,   a Divinity with material attributes,   whom he also believes to be the (Absolute) Brahman.
But the wise Ajatasatru understands the delusion of a vital force.

2.1.1   Om. There was a man of the Garga family called Proud Balaki, who was a speaker. He said to Ajatasatru, the King of Benares, 'I will tell you about Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'For this proposal I give you a thousand (cows). People indeed rush saying, 'Janaka, Janaka. (I too have some of his qualities.)'

The following conversation between Gargya and AjataSatru will have Gargya describing the abodes and attributes of Brahman,   therefore his descriptions will be limited to a conditioned Brahman.   This Brahman conditioned with the attributes of material desire is the vital force of the ignorant.   Meditation with the understanding of only the conditioned Brahman cannot lead to the Realisation of the Absolute transcendent Brahman.
The Attributes and Abodes named by Gargya as depicting Brahman have no particular distinction from any other form of Creation.   That is,   to say the sun contains a Brahman is no more relevant than to say a grain of sand contains a Brahman because not only does sand contain Brahman,   Brahman contains sand,   because all This is Brahman,   Brahman is all that Exists,   Brahman is the sun,   Jupiter and that special grain of sand as well as all that cannot be seen.   The meaning is,   The Absolute Brahman,   that alone sustains all Creation,   cannot be distinguished within creation itself.

 

2.1.2   Gargya said, 'That being who is in the sun, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as all-surpassing, as the head of all beings and as resplendent'. He who meditates upon him as such becomes all-surpassing, the head of all beings and resplendent.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of being   "all surpassing and the head of all beings"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as all-surpassing, as the head of all beings and as resplendent".

The   "head of all beings"   was the first   ("all-surpassing")   born.   "He" represents material desire or a vital force.   "He" due to forgetting by his offspring has come to represent divinity   "resplendent"   within material creation.
"He who meditates upon him as such"   is he who is ignorant of his true identity with the Absolute Brahman.   He therefore meditates with the same desire of the first born which was for worldly material gain.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

Gargya has displayed his dualistic and limited understanding of the Absolute Brahman with this very first description.
Gargya is saying that Brahman has an abode in the sun and imagines Brahman to have qualities and attributes.   This is the conditioned Brahman that is said to rest or have supporting feet in creation.   This is the Brahman of the ignorant.
In Truth the singularity that is the Non-Dual Absolute Brahman is all things including nothing,   is immutable,   and cannot have distinguishing attributes.

When the sage Meditates he waits to transcend creation,   if the sun were to disappear everything would still be complete because Brahman alone truly exists and is eternal and immutable.

 

2.1.3   Gargya said, 'That being who is in the moon, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as the great, white-robed, radiant Soma'. He who meditates upon him as such has abundant Soma pressed in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices every day, and his food never gets short.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of having abundant food and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as the great, white-robed, radiant Soma"

The "white-robed, radiant Soma"   is the moon which symbolises the mind that desires or vital force.   This is a reference to that first desire for mind that led to this creation of beings suffering from the forgetting of their unity with the non-dual Absolute Brahman.
Such desire leads to continual creation   ("his food never gets short")   within the creation cycle of birth and death

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

When the sage Meditates he waits to transcend creation,   if the moon were to disappear everything would still be complete because Brahman alone truly exists and is eternal and immutable.

 

2.1.4   Gargya said, 'That being who is in lightning, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as powerful'. He who meditates upon him as such becomes powerful, and his progeny too becomes powerful.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of being powerful and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as powerful...and his progeny too becomes powerful"

It was the power of desire of the first born that moved Absolute Knowledge into manifest material creation.   That desire which assumes a vital force continues with his progeny to this day.
In fact it is this desire (vital force),   through us,   the progeny of the first born that maintains this universe.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

When the sage Meditates he desires no further creation,   everything is complete because Brahman alone truly exists and is eternal and immutable.

 

2.1.5   Gargya said, 'This being who is in the ether, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving'. He who meditates upon him as such is filled with progeny and cattle, and his progeny is never extinct from this world.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of having   "progeny and cattle, and his progeny is never extinct from this world"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as full and unmoving"

This "ether"   or space,   although apparently being of no form is nonetheless still the manifestation of Absolute Knowledge,   as is the entire Universe it contains.   Being formed of the knowledge of the Absolute it is full   (complete).   But the appearance of forms gross and subtle,   and "movement" is due to this Consciousness of Maya.
The meaning is literal,   this universe is   "full"   with the material satisfaction of that original desire.   Meditation on Brahman with material attributes (vital force)   is due to the delusional desire for ongoing further Creation.

"his progeny is never extinct from this world"

This is the delusion of a vital force.   Seeing divinity in creation the ignorant assume the need for further creation,   they do not see that this creation is   "full"   and the work is complete.   In fact this ignorance keeps them within the consciousness of the creation cycle   ("never extinct")   which delays their return to unity with the non-dual Absolute.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.
Gargya should meditate and understand that howsoever his wealth and relations exists in Reality,   they exists within Absolute Consciousness and Knowledge that is The Absolute Brahman.

When the sage Meditates he may meditate on nothing with an empty mind because he knows that even the existence of nothing is but the Absolute.

 

2.1.6   Gargya said, 'This being who is in air, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as the Lord, as irresistible, and as the un-vanquished army'. He who meditates upon him as such ever becomes victorious and invincible, and conquers his enemies.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of being   "victorious and invincible, and conquers his enemies"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as the Lord, as irresistible, and as the un-vanquished army"

Air or the breath symbolises the vital force as the desire for life.   For those that see divinity   (vital force)   within creation this vital force is   "the Lord",   their Brahman of duality. They desire to serve their Lord through rites,   rituals and other works to further the creation of their desires.
This desire sees death of the form as   "his enemies".   Through this desire he is continually reborn into the   (Consciousness of)   experiencing life   "ever becomes victorious and invincible"
The   "unvanquished army"   is the extending line of the first born's offspring continuing the work of creation.   They are   "irresistible"   because their continuing ignorance keeps them here,   creating within the creation cycle.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.
Gargya should meditate and understand that howsoever air or vital force exists in Reality,   it exists within Absolute Consciousness and Knowledge that is The Absolute Brahman.

Mostly when the sage Meditates he rests in Brahman alone.   Through True love of the Absolute he returns to that Absolute Unity after the death of his form.

 

2.1.7   Gargya said, 'This being who is in fire, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as forbearing'. He who meditates upon him as such becomes forbearing, and his progeny too becomes forbearing.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of maintaining one's   "forbearance"   in this material transience,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as forbearing"

"Fire"   symbolises the enduring power of creation which assumes a vital force.   The act of creation produced material forms which have to endure the effects of time.
And his   "progeny too becomes forbearing".   That is,   each generation endure time and entropy long enough to produce progeny.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.
Gargya should meditate and understand that howsoever fire exists in Reality,   it exists within Absolute Consciousness and Knowledge that is The Absolute Brahman.

When the sage Meditates it is said he devotedly surrenders all to the Absolute to be used and moulded according to the knowledge of the Absolute.   The Existence of wisdom itself.

 

2.1.8   Gargya said, 'This being who is in water, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as agreeable'. He who meditates upon him as such has only agreeable things coming to him, and not contrary ones; also from him are born children who are agreeable.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result such as   "from him are born children who are agreeable"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as agreeable"..."has only agreeable things coming to him, and not contrary ones";

Water constitutes the greater of the material form of ones being,   it also maintains that form in an agreeable state.   Water also symbolises the "sea" of Absolute knowledge from which all forms of desires "agreeable" are created,   including the form of ones child.  But,  this form of meditation will not reveal the Absolute Brahman which is "contrary" to Gargya's Brahman.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.
Gargya should meditate and understand that howsoever this water exists materially,   it exists as Absolute Consciousness and Knowledge that is The Absolute Brahman.

We believe when the sage Meditates he does not seek the agreeable.   He is detached from desire and meditation even because of course Absolute Brahman is also un-meditating,   un-desiring being.

2.1.9   Gargya said, 'This being who is in a looking-glass, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining'. He who meditates upon him as such becomes shining, and his progeny too becomes shining. He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of having   "a shining religious demeanour"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as shining"

The form   "who is in a looking-glass"   here, is the material of the vital force when that form is seen through ignorance to contain the "Divine" or to represent ones Divine being.
The meaning is,   to those who adore their form as being their true identity they will see this form as   "shining"   with divinity.

"He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact."

The person who believes his form,  his body,  to be who he really is is a person who only understands duality.  This person seeks to further himself both materially and spiritually within his society of individuals, he seeks to "shine."
In truth it is the one light of divine knowledge that lights all beings.  Both this person that meditates on the "being in the looking glass" and all the persons he meets are lit equally in the consciousness of Absolute knowledge.  This one who  "outshines all he meets"  does so within his own understanding only.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

Being only aware of the Absolute when meditating the sage surrenders all senses knowing with deference to the unknowable that he is the very being of the light of Absolute Knowledge.

 

2.1.10   Gargya said, 'This sound that issues behind a man as he walks, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as life'. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and life does not depart from him before the completion of that term.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of a   "full life"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as life"

An echo or any sound is of this Creation of dimensions made manifest through that original desire,   the vital force of the ignorant.   This   "life"   is the result of that first desire to experience worldly knowledge.   It is that ongoing desire as vital force which seeks to echo  ones return to this life because it is now believed to be who one really is.

"...and life does not depart from him before the completion of that term".

This is confirmation that one will repeatedly echo this life experience within the consciousness of the rebirth cycle until one has realised, in consciousness, the Absolute Brahman, God.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

Perhaps when the sage Meditates he gives up all attachment to the body and life.   In the presence of the Absolute no personal will is needed.

 

2.1.11   Gargya said,'This being who is in the quarters, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said,'Please don't talk about him, I meditate upon him as second and as non-separating. He who meditates upon him as such gets companions, and his followers never depart from him.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of having his   "followers never depart from him"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as second and as non-separating"

"The quarters"   represent this universe in all its directions.
The being in this universe is the material product (vital force)   or offspring ("second")   of the first born.   But,  there is no second,   the reality of Existence is its primal unity.   Although all beings,   all the descendents of the first born appear to be separate individuals   "companions"   we are all merely the manifestation of the unity of Absolute Knowledge.
That is,   although the appearance is of many that first born and his descendents are   "non-separating"   which means both that  "his followers never depart from him",   and also that this will remain so until he ceases further creation through realising and returning to the Absolute unity.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

When the sage Meditates he might become as the childless orphan on the mountain peak.   The only consideration of substance is THAT that is eternal.   The Non-Dual Absolute.

 

2.1.12   Gargya said,'This being who identifies himself with the shadow, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him. I meditate upon him as death'. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and death does not overtake him before the completion of that term.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of having   "his full term"   of life in this world and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as death"

The shadow is of the form of man.   The form   (body)   of the ignorant man represents his life.   But with life comes inevitable death.   As the shadow always follows the man so death always follows the form.

"He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world"

Meditation with desire   (vital force)   to maintain one's life will maintain ones material being within the creation cycle,   it will not realise the Absolute Self to gain emancipation from this material world.

"death does not overtake him before the completion of that term."

This "term" refers to the term of his desiring of worldly work or knowledge.  The meaning is,  he will remain in the consciousness of birth and death until his sole desire is to return home to the Absolute.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

When the sage Meditates in the being of the Absolute the concerns regarding the transient cycle of material fall away,   This must be so to attain liberation from the creation cycle.

 

2.1.13   Gargya said,'This being who is in the self, I meditate upon as Brahman'. Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him, I meditate upon him as self-possessed. He who meditates upon him as such becomes self-possessed, and his progeny too becomes self-possessed. Gargya remained silent.

"Ajatasatru said, 'Please don't talk about him".

Ajatasatru does not want to speak about   "him"   a divinity within this universe of material and desire.   This would constitute a vital force.   Meditation on the mortal universal attributes of a conditioned Brahman   (vital force)   may produce the desired material result of being   "self-possessed"   and so forth,   but such meditation cannot reveal The Absolute Brahman.

"I meditate upon him as self-possessed"

This is the root of the ignorance of a vital force.   To imagine one's material form,   one's body or   "self"   to represent or contain the reality of who we are is a delusion of duality,   one becomes   "self-possessed".   The vital force is the material   "self"   of the ignorant who still desires creation.
Those that have been enlightened of their ignorance understand that the true form of existence which is their true identity,   is with the transcendent Non-Dual Absolute Self.

Ajatasatru expected to hear of the Eternal Absolute Brahman that alone existed before this Universe and that even now transcends all material considerations.

When the sage Meditates to know the transcendent Brahman he lets remembering fall away.   If remembering returns there will be nothing to receive it and all will fall away again.   All there IS is the Absolute Self.   No memory or possession is needed with full and eternal Knowledge.

 

2.1.14   Ajatasatru said, 'Is this all?''This is all'.'By knowing this much one cannot know (Brahman).' Gargya said, 'I approach you as a student'.

"knowing this much one cannot know Brahman"

This is to confirm that the Brahman described and understood by Gargya is not the True Brahman,   Absolute,   Self,   God.   As demonstrated Gargya's Brahman is imagined to be a part of the transient material Universe,   an imagined vital force.   This Brahman has been endowed by man with material attributes such as having a place of abode.   But the Absolute Brahman transcends creation and the Universe because all that Exists exists within Brahman,   That is all that exists is but Brahman itself alone.
The statements that meditation on the attributes of this conditioned Brahman produce material results such as becoming   "self-possessed, and his progeny too becomes self-possessed"   means that to meditate with this worldly understanding is to desire this materiality so one will be lead,   in Consciousness,   to this material gain either in this world or through transmigration   (in Consciousness).   That is   :-
"He who meditates upon him as such becomes self- (vital force,   the self of the ignorant) -possessed"

 

2.1.15   Ajatasatru said, 'It is contrary to usage that a Brahmana should approach a Ksatriya thinking' He will teach me about Brahman'. However I will instruct you.' Taking Gargya by the hand he rose. They came to a sleeping man. (Ajatasatru) addressed him by these names, 'Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma'. The man did not get up. (The King) pushed him with the hand till he awoke. Then he got up.

"It is contrary to usage that a Brahmana should approach a Ksatriya thinking He will teach me"

This statement refers to the remembered Smriti tradition of caste division,   not the highest Truth and understanding of this Sruti that cast division arose from man's own desire to flourish within this world,  as explained in chapter one,  and authentically demonstrated by Ajatasatru's actions here.

"Ajatasatru addressed him by these names, 'Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma'. The man did not get up"

With the attempt to wake a sleeping man by addressing him as   "Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma"   (vital force or hiranyagarbha),   which was Gargya's understanding of Brahman   (which is the self as understood by the ignorant),   Ajatasatru demonstrates that the Absolute Brahman is not residing within the body nor is it the body itself.
Further,   the body of this sleeping man,   being the manifest material of desire or vital force   ("Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma")   has no true existence itself,   it is not Brahman.   That is,   a vital force does not experience,   it has no Consciousness or true "self".
When the man did not respond Ajatasatru point was that The Absolute Brahman or Self could not be embodied within because otherwise the immutable Self which never sleeps would have experienced and responded.
The meaning is,   Absolute Brahman,  or The Absolute Self,   does not reside within to interact with Creation.   The Absolute transcends creation through being the projector of Creation itself.   That is,   The Absolute Brahman is both the experience and the experienced.   In this example The Absolute Brahman is both Ajatasatru,   (the subject)   and Great white-robed   (Vital force), etc.   (the object).   It is both the naming and the named,   The Absolute is indeed all This.   Ultimately the Absolute Brahman is purely the witness to all this.

 

2.1.16   AjataSatru said, 'When this being full of Consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep, where was it, and whence did it thus come?' Gargya did not know that.

Ajatasatru is asking Gargya if he knows where the waking Consciousness of a sleeping man goes to. This is in preparation for Ajatasatru to answer himself.

 

2.1.17   Ajatasatru said, 'When this being full of Consciousness is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own Consciousness, and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called Svapiti. Then the nose is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed'.

"When this being full of Consciousness"

This Consciousness refers to the function of conscious awareness of the mind derived through cognition and use of the senses.

"is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own Consciousness".

This   "own Consciousness"   refers to the natural function of awareness of mind.   It is the function of mind to cognise the results of the sense organs such as sight etc.
During sleep the mind sleeps,   that is sense information is received and absorbed but not processed as such.

"and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart".

This   "Akasa"   means the   "empty"   ether or space in general within the body.   It is described here as being within the heart but it is to include any space that appears to be empty,   such as the stomach.   That is,   all apparent space   (all that exists)   is actually projected by the Absolute Self as "self".   The meaning is,   that even the existence of apparent "nothing" is made manifest by Absolute Knowledge.   Ultimately the Absolute Brahman,   Self supports all.
So this statement explains that the function of mind and external facing senses that are described here as   "own Consciousness"   are supported by the Absolute Consciousness which is the Absolute Self.
The Absolute Self Consciousness is the Principle of Consciousness,   as it were,   that supports this   "own Consciousness"   or   "mind Consciousness".
When the functions of the organs,   described here as   "own Consciousness"   become withdrawn,   as it were into that   space within the heart,   this space is said to be where the   "Supreme Self"   can be known through intuition as   "the self".   In reality there exists only the Absolute Self without division,   location or label but the descriptions here are for the explanation of the experience of reality.

"Then the nose is absorbed....the organ of speech....and the mind is absorbed"

Here the functions of the organs such as nose and so forth are described as being held within the   "the self"   Consciousness that is now experiencing sleeping and so the function of the nose and other organs are not looking to the external world around the form of the   "sleeping body".

 

2.1.18   When it thus remains in the dream state, these are its achievements: It then becomes an emperor, as it were, or a noble Brahmana, as it were, or attains states high or low, as it were. As an emperor, taking his citizens, moves about as he pleases in his own territory, so does it, thus taking the organs, move about as it pleases in its own body.

"in the dream state, these are its achievements".

Describing the Consciousness of the sleeping man whose   "self"   Consciousness has taken the function of the organs within.   This   "self"   is now experiencing dreaming in Consciousness.

"It then becomes an emperor, as it were, or a noble Brahmana, as it were, or attains states high or low, as it were"

In the dream world,   as it were,   this   "self"   Consciousness can act out any scenario because it furnishes its dream world as it pleases.

"As an emperor, taking his citizens, moves about as he pleases in his own territory"

The organs of mind and senses and so forth have their functioning principle held within this   "self"   Consciousness.   So the   "citizens"   are the organs of the body and the   "emperor"   is the   "self"   Consciousness and his own territory is the dream state of its own creation.

"so does it, thus taking the organs, move about as it pleases in its own body"

As described above the   "self"   Consciousness having the functioning principle of the organs of a body   "move about as it pleases"   with a body within the dream state of its own creation.

 

2.1.19   Again when it becomes fast asleep when it does not know anything it comes back along the seventy two thousand nerves called Hita, which extend from the heart to the pericardium (the whole body), and remains in the body. As a baby, or an emperor, or a noble Brahmana lives, having attained the acme of bliss, so does it remain.

"when it becomes fast asleep when it does not know anything it comes back.... from the heart.... and remains in the body"

"it"   refers to the Consciousness of awareness relating to the functions of the organs of the body.   Hence the term   "remains in the body"   and it is also the reason for the   "nerves called Hita"   as the means of communication of this "physical" Consciousness.
In deep dreamless sleep described here as fast asleep the   "mind"   Consciousness has no experiences of the duality of Creation either through dreaming or through the senses.   It does not know desire or fear or pleasure.   There is no knowing through a desiring mind.

"As a baby, or an emperor, or a noble Brahmana lives, having attained the acme of bliss, so does it remain"

The meaning here is that this   "self"   (material vital force)   Consciousness appears to be in a state of bliss due to being free of the effects of duality through desire or fear and so forth.   But this bliss is only a temporary bliss Due to its ignorance through being in deep sleep.   True Bliss is the Bliss of the Absolute through being all knowledge.

 

2.1.20   As a spider moves along the thread (it produces), and as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions, so from this Self emanate all organs, all worlds, all gods and all beings. Its secret name (Upanishad) is 'the Truth of truth'.   The vital force   is truth,   and It is the Truth of that.

This section started with the words I will tell you about Brahman thereby stating its intention of describing the Truth of the Non-Dual Absolute Brahman.   As a final act of this section a symbolical description of all the apparent separate forms of Creation emanating from The Absolute Brahman is given including the vital force which is the conditioned Brahman of the ignorant.
The meaning of this verse is that Absolute Knowledge and Consciousness   (The Absolute)   projects or makes manifest Creation and "all worlds" as the Universe.   The Absolute or the Absolute Self Consciousness then causes the "self" experience of birth within Creation   "from this Self emanate all organs".
This change in Consciousness from the Bliss and stillness of Absolute Consciousness to the Consciousness of "self" causes the forgetting that is ignorance of the Non-Dual Absolute and the assumption of a vital force or the conditioned Brahman of Gargya that leads the descent into further nescience.

The spider moving out on the web that is itself a part of the spider is a symbol of the unity of all things,  as are each tiny spark of the fire the same as the fire that produced them.  In keeping with the knowledge that all of creation is but name and form this Upanishad calls the forms   "truth";   and Brahman or The Self or The Absolute,   as the Creator is the Non-Dual Eternal Truth of the transient mortal created truth.  That is,  Hiranyagarbha or vital force that is the material manifestation of this living universe is the knowledge that is the truth of the Absolute.  But, Hiranyagarbha or vital force as the material manifestation of that truth is not eternal,  it is transient therefore ultimately unreal.  But,  The Absolute,  which alone is Truth Consciousness and Bliss is the eternal Truth of that transient truth.  That is,  The Absolute,  Brahman or God  ("It")  is the Truth of the truth.

 

Section 2.

The previous section discussed the statement   'I will tell you about Brahman".   This was achieved through the comparison of the True Transcendental Absolute Brahman and the material understanding of Brahman held by Gargya which amounted to a   Vital Force   residing in the world.
This vital force is the "self" of the ignorant and its rising from that ignorance is explained in detail in this section.

1. He who knows the calf with its abode, its special resort, its post and its tether kills his seven envious kinsmen: The vital force in the body is indeed the calf; this body is its abode, the head its special resort, strength its post, and food its tether.

"vital force in the body is indeed the calf"

The vital force is the child or calf of desire   (mind)   and material form   (body).   This represents the growing seed of desire for further creation,   and also the growing potential of the ego when fed the results of pleasure seeking   (by the envious senses).
This vital force relates specially to the seven perceiving organs   (senses)   in the head,   two eyes,   two nostrils,   two ears   and a mouth.

"the head its special resort"

This has a meaning extra to the vital force of desire feeding from the sense organs.   The head is the resort of   Manas   desire and all delusional thinking.   The resort of a mistaken concept is the head.   The ego resides in the head.   The vital force whose existence depends on ignorance relates only to the head.

"food its tether."

It cannot leave the body because it is a delusion of the man,   and it is maintained along with the body by material food.

"strength its post".

Physical strength represents the desire to flourish in creation.   Those who desire to flourish cling to the vital force as they cling to life it is their very source of strength.   This tethers the vital force as a valued calf is tethered to a post.

"He who knows the calf with its abode..."

This means he who has the knowledge and understanding that the calf is the vital force representing ego and desires which are fed by the seven misused senses.

"...kills his seven envious kinsmen".

These are the seven senses that perceive with desire the material world.   The meaning is that one needs to control   "kill"   the senses to prevent the seeing of duality by an ignorant mind and vital force.
Through meditation,   with the senses controlled,   mind and intellect can become more discriminative and guided by the truth of the Self,   Brahman.

 

2.2.2   These seven gods that prevent decay worship it: Through these pink lines in the eye Rudra attends on it; through the water that is in the eye, Parjanya; through the pupil, the sun; through the dark portion, fire; through the white portion, Indra; through the lower eye-lid the earth attends on it; and through the upper eyelid, heaven. He who knows it as such never has any decrease of food.

"These seven gods that prevent decay worship it".

The seven gods as the seven organs worship   (feed,   maintain)   the vital force using the material world,   symbolised by mans gods of desire,   seeing through the faculties of the head,   the senses.
By maintaining desire they maintain the vital force which maintains the creation cycle   "prevent decay".

"He who knows it as such."

Means he who meditates as such,   he who lives by his desires,   he who only understands this much   :-

"never has any decrease of food."

This means if the head is filled with material concerns and desires then he will assume the path of a vital force following the material world through the creation cycle,   continually maintaining or creating this universe as food,   "never has any decrease of food."

 

2.2.3   Regarding this there is the following verse: 'There is a bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top; various kinds of knowledge have been put in it; seven sages sit by its side, and the organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth'. The 'bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top' is this head of ours, for it is the bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top. 'Various kinds of knowledge have been put in it', refers to the organs; these indeed represent various kinds of knowledge. 'Seven sages sit by its side', refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages. 'The organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth', because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas.

"There is a bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top".

"The bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top is this head of ours".

As the verse seems to explain itself,   the upturned bowl represents the head.

"Various kinds of knowledge have been put in it"

The knowledge   "put in"   the head is that transmitted by the sense organs,   as this verse again explains itself.   :-

"refers to the organs; these indeed represent various kinds of knowledge".

The various categories of knowledge that the head contains will each   "represent"   the sense that received it.

"Seven sages sit by its side refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages".

The senses that pass on their perceived   "knowledge"   are here called the   "Seven sages"   because   "the head"   relies on them as its teachers to provide its knowledge.

"The organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth".

The organ of speech or tongue has two functions,   one is to eat the other is to speak knowledge   "Vedas".   It is these sages or senses that need to be controlled or curtailed to allow finer knowledge from inner enquiry and study of the Vedas concerning the Self to arise.
The meaning is that the vital force or ego residing in the head is fed only by the senses.   That is,   a vital force can only perceive or understand materiality and duality.   The man that is led by a belief in a vital force will be led deeper into nescience and this way does not lead to emancipation through Self Realisation.

 

2.2.4   These two (ears) are Gotama and Bharadvaja: this one is Gotama, and this one Bharadvaja: These two (eyes) are Visvamitra and Jamadagni: this one is Visvamitra, and this one Jamadagni. These two (nostrils) are Vasistha, and Kasyapa: this one is Vasistha, and this one Kasyapa: The tongue is Atri, for through the tongue food is eaten. 'Atri' is but this name 'Atti'. He who knows it as such becomes the eater of all, and everything becomes his food.

The said organs are now depicted as gods.   Previously they were depicted as the sages that   "taught"   or fed the vital force in the head.
All of these gods are mans own projections of cause.  Here it is being demonstrated how man has projected each god to satisfy each sensual desire.

"He who knows it as such"

This specifically means he who meditates with desire through this understanding of a vital force.

"becomes the eater of all, and everything becomes his food"

The Vedas explain the practice of meditation as leading to higher Consciousness.
But this higher Consciousness is still limited through desire.   So although he is above being food himself,   higher in the food chain as it were,   he is still in the realm of food   (material)   duality.
Self Realisation through renouncing desire will lead to freedom from all of the above considerations.

 

Section 3.

The previous section described how the error of the vital force arose through the mind assuming its own identity desiring through the senses.
This section describes a vital force as being the Brahman of those who have forgotten their true identity with the Singularity that is the Absolute Brahman.   This forgetting is the cause of their ignorance.
That Brahman of the ignorant is thought to have material attributes,   both gross and subtle.
That Brahman with material attributes is being described here but it will finally be stated that the True Absolute Brahman is not this   (vital force or Brahman with attributes).

 

2.3.1   Brahman has but two forms-gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited and unlimited, defined and undefined.

All the Sages inform us that The Absolute Brahman,   or God is without form.   The Absolute Brahman is neither gross nor subtle.
The gross and subtle forms ascribed to Brahman here are a material form of vital force,   which has become a Brahman with material attributes because material being is mistaken to represent the will of the Divine.
Consequently all of the following descriptions are aspects of material desire within creation (vital force).

 

2.3.2   The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is mortal, it is limited, and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the sun that shines, for it is the essence of the defined.

"The gross (form)....is mortal,   it is limited, and it is defined".

The fact that all forms are transient is confirmed by the sages and our sense of reason.
The reference to the sun has the meaning that it is the sun that lights and defines form,   therefore the   "sun that shines"   is the essence of   (gross)   definition.
The organs of the body that support the experience of "life" are merely material,   the gross form of Brahman   (vital force)   therefore the body is mortal.

 

2.3.3   Now the subtle it is air and the ether. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun, for that is the essence of the undefined. This is with reference to the gods.

"The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun, for that is the essence of the undefined".

The subtle as air and ether means the subtle does not have form.   That which does not have form is not a living being therefore it does not experience life or death therefore it is immortal is the meaning.

"the being that is in the sun"

this means the subtle deity Brahman   (vital force).

"This is with reference to the gods".

This is the conditioned Brahman of the ignorant,   they see it as a divine vital force within creation.
As explained,   This projected deity of the ignorant is seen as divine and immortal.

 

2.3.4   Now with reference to the body: The gross form is but this what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is mortal, it is limited, and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the eye, for it is the essence of the defined.

All of creation that can be seen with the eye has a form constructed of gross material,   including the body,   therefore it is transient subject to decay and mortal.

 

2.3.5   Now the subtle it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye, for this is the essence of the undefined.

The same sense applies in this verse as to the previous verses,   air etc. appears immortal due to lack of form,   and not seen as a living force.
The body,   due to its having form and life,   is seen as mortal.   That is,   the organs of the body die and decay,   but the ether or space within the body remains unchanged   (relatively)   immortal   (note,   but not eternal).
The reference to the being in the right eye correspond to the being in the sun in verse three in that we are referring to the conditioned Brahman,   the Brahman with observable attributes.   In reality all material has an observable form which accords to the range of these senses.

The whole play of creation,  the senses,   their range and so forth,   seer and seen is the Absolute Brahman.
That which is truly subtle considering creation is its existence.   It is this existence which is the Eternal Absolute Brahman,   but apart from existence itself there is nothing of creation that is observable or definable as Immortal and Absolute.
Creation proves the Absolute exists,   but creation does not define the Absolute.   The Absolute is   "Not this, not this".

 

2.3.6   The form of that 'being' is as follows: Like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep's wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): 'Not this, not this'. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this 'Not this'. Now Its name: 'The Truth of truth'. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

"The form of that 'being' is as follows: Like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep's wool.... or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning"

The meaning is that the appearance or ones perception of this Creation is not the ultimate reality.
As with   "cloth dyed with turmeric"   the true colour or reality of the cloth is hidden by the dye.   Or a white lotus does not mean that lotuses are defined by being white,   which means one cannot guess the reality of any lotus by the sense of sight.   Or a flash of lightening reveals for a moment the existence of previously unknown forms.   It follows that he who imagines he knows the Absolute Brahman through the material or forms of creation is deluded by the senses into believing in a vital force.

"He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning"

"He who knows it as such"   means he who meditates with the understanding of a vital force or a conditioned Brahman such as a Brahman in lightning may   "attains splendour like a flash of lightning"   but this will be transient or mortal within the cycle of worldly rebirth and death.

"Now therefore the description (of Brahman): "Not this, not this"

Due to the Absolute Brahman being indefinable and ultimately unknowable in creation the only logical description is   "Not this, not this"
This means the Absolute Brahman is   "Not this"   Brahman with attributes,   or   "not this"   vital force or Hiranyagarbha.

"Now Its name:   "The Truth of truth"   The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that"

It is true that the Knowledge that is the Absolute Brahman may be manifested and appearing as attributes such as a vital force,   but these manifestations are themselves the result of the   Maya   of this Creation.   This Creation,   as a projection of Absolute Knowledge is designed to manifest the forms according to that original desire.   So,   this Creation is attributed to a vital force  (or Hiranyagarbha),   but this vital force is maintained by mans ongoing desire.
The ongoing forgetting of the Non-Dual Absolute by the descendants of the first born assumes this vital force is the will of the Absolute to maintained and further Creation.
The forms of the Universe are made manifest through Absolute Knowledge,  this knowledge is Truth so these are the forms of truth.   But,  this truth is not the Absolute Truth of Brahman.   The Absolute Brahman is the unknowable indescribable Truth of any mortal describable truth that arose from desire and the ignorance of forgetting.
Therefore the Absolute is the Truth of the truth.   A vital force is not the Absolute Truth.

That is,   the Brahman or self of the ignorant is the material vital force which constitutes this manifest Universe.   Therefore this Brahman has the delusional attributes of being gross and mortal also of being subtle and immortal.

 

Section 4.

The previous section sought to describe the Absolute Self,   Brahman through denying what The Absolute is not,   not a vital force not a Brahman with attributes.
Now in this section the Sruti speaks directly of that highest Truth.   Here we are presented with the Absolute Self through a discourse between Yajnavalkya and his wife Maitreyi.
The   same discourse   also forms the fifth section of the fourth chapter of this Upanishad.

 

1. "Maitreyi,   my dear,"   said Yajnavalkya,   "I am going to renounce this life.   Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani"

Yajnavalkya is our Sage who has realised The Absolute and with this realisation his attachments to this world will have fallen away.
For such a Realised person renunciation is merely an admission that he no longer sees reality in this Creation.   If Yajnavalkya where to carry on performing worldly tasks this would be a charade,   a pretence of participation that would not be true.
Yajnavalkya's announcement of his intention and arrangements for his wives result from duty and love Because the renouncing of worldly concerns by Yajnavalkya means that he can no longer fulfil duties or responsibilities formerly undertaken by himself.

 

2. Thereupon Maitreyi said, 'Sir, if indeed this whole earth full of wealth be mine, shall I be immortal through that'?  'No', replied Yajnavalkya, 'your life will be just like that of people who have plenty of things,   but there is no hope of immortality through wealth'.

Here Maitreyi demonstrates with a question revealing profound understanding that she also is discerning of the truth and is therefore seeking the Absolute.
Yajnavalkya confirms the truth of what her heart was telling her,   that when Yajnavalkya leaves she will be left without a teacher as her means of gaining Self Realisation.

 

3.   Then Maitreyi said, 'What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal? Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality)'.

"What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal?"

Maitreyi declares that she sees as worthless the possessions of comfort and material wealth   and asks to be taught   "of that alone"   which is eternal and true.

 

4.   Yajnavalkya said, 'My dear, you have been my beloved (even before), and you say what is after my heart. Come, take your seat, I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate (on its meaning)'.

Yajnavalkya admits that he had felt Maitreyi's   love of the Self even before.   Her request to be his pupil was in accord with his own surrender to The Absolute Self.

"you say what is after my heart"

This has the meaning that it was Yajnavalkya's original love for the divine that led him to seek that divine truth.  Yajnavalkya now recognises that heartfelt desire in Maitreyi's request to be his pupil.

"As I explain it, meditate (on its meaning)"

Yajnavalkya,   having realised The Self also realises that this knowledge cannot be adequately conveyed in words alone,   this fact is confirmed by all the wise sages.   Yajnavalkya's   instruction to Maitreyi to hear the teaching and meditate on what is heard was her first lesson and is the master practice.

 

5.   He said: It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved, but for one's own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the wife, my dear, that she is loved, but for one's own sake that she is loved. It is not for the sake of the sons, my dear, that they are loved, but for one's own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth, my dear, that it is loved, but for one's own sake that it is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana, my dear, that he is loved, but for one's own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Ksatriya, my dear, that he is loved, but for one's own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the worlds, my dear, that they are loved, but for one's own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the gods, my dear, that they are loved, but for one's own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the beings, my dear, that they are loved, but for one's own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all, my dear, that all is loved, but for one's own sake that it is loved. The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realised, should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. By the realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and meditation, all this is known.

"Maitreyi said....Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality)"

In accordance with Maitreyi's   request Yajnavalkya proceeds to reveal the nature of True love as being the love for The Divine Absolute Self.
Maitreyi is already recognised by Yajnavalkya to be a person of considerable wisdom and he has seen her love to be true.   Accordingly and with due respect his explanation will not   include the false love of attachment through desire,   also the purpose of this section is to speak of the Absolute Self directly.
Further to this we also have from a footnote to his translation Swami Madhavananda denoted "own sake" as meaning "own self".
As confirmation of the above Yajnavalkya's   final words of this verse being   "By the realisation of the Self....all this is known." is a direct statement that the love he has described is the Love that is of The Absolute Self.

Yajnavalkya's   first example states   "It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved,   but for one's   own sake that he is loved"   Further examples describe all forms of creation in a similar vein.
Yajnavalkya is explaining that True Love is in fact the unseen Self and not related to the names and forms of creation.   When awareness of Love rises in Consciousness what is felt is the Self.   Further to this it is the Self that recognises the Self,   so although the wife sees the form of her husband what she   (her true Self)   has come to Love in that being is the light of the Self.
Once the love of the Self is Realised then the same Self is seen in even "lifeless" objects because all forms of existence are seen to be lit by the One Self.  True love is the Self experience of Existence.
The being we regard as   'I'   is the Self shrouded in the costumes of creation committed to enacting this role.   But whatever else can be said The Self is the Singularity of Absolute Knowledge the unity of which manifests as Love,   this has always been seen and confirmed by all the Seers,   Sages and Prophets.   Whatever the reasons for creation this Love is the unifying Truth,   this love is a proof of unity.
This is an important consideration.   This Love is a manifestation of the Self.   Love enables the deep trust in the Existence of the Absolute,   trust is a component of renunciation,   renunciation reveals That Self.
These words are not epithets and this is not flowery language,   this is a most fundamental truth.   This Love through awareness leads to the Absolute.
Yajnavalkya's list is designed to be all encompassing and ends for good measure by stating that all is Loved for the sake of the Self,   meaning that when True Love is recognised in creation The Self is revealed.   That is,   Love is the real recognising the real and Eternal amongst the unreal which is transient.
It is through True Love that names and forms,   wife,   husband,   father,   mother,   sister,   brother,   son,   daughter,   can be both respected but eventually renounced along with this Creation to surrender to the true source of all love The Absolute,   The Self.
Love is Unity manifest.   Yajnavalkya confirms that through hearing,   reflection and meditation all this will become known to Maitreyi.

 

6.   The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. The Ksatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. The worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brahmana, this Ksatriya, these worlds, these gods, these beings, and this all are the Self.

"The worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self"

The term   "one who knows "   describes a person whose knowledge and understanding is limited to duality, that is to say he only knows,   recognises,   or meditates on others as being separate even in essence to "himself".
this living in the ignorance of duality is what introduces the effects of evil into his world.   Such a person whose knowledge of the Self and unity is so covered will not display the same light or love of the Self as others because he will not recognise the Self in others or in himself.
This is what is meant by,   and the cause of,   his being ousted,   rejected by   "others".
It is restated that All This is The Self.

 

7.   As when a drum is beaten one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes.

Likening Existence,   The Absolute Self,   to a drum,   we can feel the many vibrations in harmony within that one note created by the drum,
that same knowledge that constitutes the drum,   is the same knowledge that constitutes the drum beat,  that same knowledge that constitutes the drum beat constitutes its many vibrations.   There exists but the knowledge of one drum.

The singularity of Absolute Knowledge constitutes this Universe of many forms.
These beings (selves),   these planets,   this universe all constitute this one Creation.
This one Creation exists within and accords to the pure Knowledge that is The One Absolute Self.
This Existence is a Singularity of Absolute Knowledge.
The meaning is it is wrong to imagine individual existences,   none exists separate from the single drum or this Singularity that is the Absolute Self.

 

8.   As when a conch is blown one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

For fullness of effect we consider the conch as the Absolute Self.
The shell will vibrate in keeping with the knowledge that forms its very existence.
Causing the conch to sound will produce the notes that will strictly conform to the knowledge and laws that form the conch.
At the end of the sounding all vibrations will become still and the conch will once again become its own pure Knowledge containing all those unmanifest vibrations.

Likewise Causing the Singularity of Existence which is the Absolute to project this Universe with its apparent forms will start the creation cycle strictly in accordance with the Knowledge and laws of Existence.   This Creation will eventually return to the stillness of unmanifest Knowledge which is the Non-Dual Absolute.

 

9.   As when a Vina is played on one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

Now the Vina is played.   By considering the different instruments we get an idea of what is meant by knowledge.   This knowledge is not a knowledge that is built up,   produced or gained.   In the case of the instrument it will perform strictly according to the laws of its being   (construction)   this is the knowledge that it is.
The Absolute Self is Knowledge Absolute without origin.

 

10.   As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharvahgirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self).

Through attempting to list some of the objects or forms and so forth of creation it can be seen how inadequate or impossible attempts are to fully describe The Absolute in terms of name,   form or words.   Infinity cannot be described or defined through listing the possibilities it contains.   Yajnavalkya's   meaning is as the fire is the one source of different kinds of smoke so the Absolute is the one source of all that Is.

 

11.   As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours, as the tongue is the one goal of all savours, as the eye is the one goal of all colours, as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the   Manas   is the one goal of all deliberations, as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all sorts of work, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the anus is the one goal of all excretions, as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas.

All creation corresponds to That Absolute Knowledge.   "The ear is the one goal of all sounds"   and so forth.   This Creation is not the result of the duality of coincidence nor does any   "one thing"  exist that stands alone as being not of this Creation is what is being said here.   All  "This"  is in accord with the projection of the Knowledge of The Non-Dual Absolute.   All things are a part of one common goal.  All that exists, exists only within this unity.  A sound only exists because a sense of hearing exists.  An odour only exists because a sense of smell exists, and so forth.
The non-dual Absolute should be meditated upon to realise our one goal is to return to unity as that Absolute.

 

12.   As a lump of salt dropped into water dissolves with (its component) water, and no one is able to pick it up, but whencesoever one takes it, it tastes salt, even so, my dear, this great, endless, infinite Reality is but Pure Intelligence. (The self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements, and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more Consciousness. This is what I say, my dear. So said Yajnavalkya.

Yajnavalkya likens Realising or returning to unity with the Absolute as a lump of salt (self) dissolving in water (the Absolute Self).   A lump of individual (unrealised) salt dissolved in water goes from edge to edge,   from top to bottom.   Within the existence of the salt water there is only salt water.   There is no individual grain of salt or single drop of water,  nor area,   spot,   edge etc.   That is not now salt water.   "whencesoever one takes it, it tastes salt"   Within this Absolute existence that is salt water there is no other water to indicate a difference,   no duality.   Only salt water exists.   In that existence the name salt water is unknown.   Salty water can only be known through duality,   by comparison with water that is not salty.   Only salt water exists there so what is there is what is.   What exists there is not salt it is not water,   it just Is.

This existence is Pure Knowledge,   that is Consciousness.   This existence is pure Consciousness Absolute.   A singularity of consciousness cannot be Conscious of any-thing,   therefore it just Is.

 

13.   Maitreyi said, 'Just here you have thrown me into confusion sir, by saying that after attaining (oneness) the self has no more Consciousness'. Yajnavalkya said, 'Certainly I am not saying anything confusing, my dear; this is quite sufficient for knowledge, O Maitreyi'.

For the sake of elucidation this verse has Maitreyi question Yajnavalkya's statement that when only the one Consciousness is realised to exist then Consciousness cannot be distinguished as such.  Individuality is distinguished,  it is a duality and therefore false.  When the individual surrenders no difference is seen in consciousness.

 

14.   Because when there is duality, as it were, then one smells something, one sees something, one hears something, one speaks something, one thinks something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one smell and through what, what should one see and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one know and through what? Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower?

Yajnavalkya explains that it is through the ignorance of duality that apparent separation occurs.   When the Self is realised,   when the seeker (the self) becomes one with the Self who would be the seeker?   Who would be the Self?   Who would see Whom?
When the appearance of duality drops the seer drops and the seen drops.   There is just the Self.   Existence IS.

 

Section 5.

From the previous section the reader should have understood that all that IS,   all that Exists is the Absolute Self Alone.   The appearance of this creation is dependent on,  and only a projection,  within the singularity of The Absolute.
This folowing section describes the effects of this Singularity as all things being mutually dependent on each other and all things being ultimatly dependent on the singularity of the Absolute,  God or Brahman,  which is moved by our desire or need to complete our work (karma).

The honey principle.
The bee sustains the honey.
The honey feeds the bee.
Man's desire sustains the universe.
The universe feeds man's desire.

 

2.5.1   This earth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this earth. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this earth, and the shining, immortal, corporeal being in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This earth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are   (like) honey to this earth".

This earth fulfils the desire to experience worldly knowledge.   (like honey to all beings)
The desire to experience worldly knowledge caused the manifestation of this earth.   (like honey to this earth)

"(The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this earth, and the shining, immortal, corporeal being in the body".

The material of the earth and the material of the body result from the same cause.   That cause was desire for material form.
The forms of the material world have come to be seen as existing through divine will therefore they are seen as Brahman.   But this is a Brahman with material attributes.
This mistaken divinity or   Vital Force   or   "shining immortal being"   is the one material of all creation.   That is the material of the body and the material of the earth.

"(These four) are but this Self".

In reality the material of the body,   The material of the earth,   The material vital force of the earth and the material vital force of the body are all four one and the same.
This sameness is the unity of the Absolute Self.   The Absolute is Non-Dual and is the Singularity of Existence.   This is the meaning.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise one's true identity as that of the Absolute Self.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.2   This water is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this water. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water, and the shining, immortal, being identified with the seed in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This water is (like) honey to all beings"

This water that sustains the material form of the body is like honey that sustains life.

"all beings are (like) honey to this water."

All beings that adore their life and form sustain   (like honey)   the material creation   (water)   through that desire.

"The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water, and the shining, immortal, being identified with the seed in the body."

This shining being in water is the desire   (vital force)   that manifests this water.
The desire that moves the reproduction seed in the body is that material desire or vital force.

"(These four) are but this Self"

These four manifestations of worldly desire are but the singularity of Absolute Knowledge,   or Self,   made manifest.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.3   This fire is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this fire. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this fire, and the shining, immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality, this (underlying unity) is Brahman, this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This fire is like honey to all beings."

This fire of creation due to desire is the food   (honey)   of material creation that forms all beings.

"all beings are like honey to this fire."

The desire of all beings for further creation is the fuel   (honey)   for the fire of creation.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this fire, and the shining, immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body"

The projection of shining material divinity,   vital force,   is the fire and speech that sounds the words of desire that the ignorant assume is the desire of the divine for further material creation.

"(These four) are but this Self"

These four effects of desire are supported by the one Existence of experiencing,   the Non-Dual Absolute Self.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.4   This air is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this air. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this air, and the shining, immortal being who is the vital force in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This air is like honey to all beings,"

This air of this manifest creation is the honey of support to all manifest life forms.

"all beings are like honey to this air."

The being with ongoing desire for worldly life manifests the vital force   (like honey)   of material desire for that very breath of life.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this air, and the shining, immortal being who is the vital force in the body."

The vital force or   "the shining, immortal being"   is the ignorance that is the honey that feeds ongoing desire for fulfilment within material creation.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The forms of material and the forms of desire are but manifestations of material desire.
All that is manifest is supported by the singularity of Existence that is the Absolute Self.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.5   This sun is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this sun. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this sun, and the shining, immortal being identified with the eye in the body, (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This sun is like honey to all beings,"

The sun that was made manifest through that original desire for creation is like honey for the being that depends on it.

"all beings are like honey to this sun."

The manifestation of the sun depends on the honey of material desire of the first born.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this sun, and the shining, immortal being identified with the eye in the body,"

The being seen as divine and shining within material creation by those whose ignorance prolongs desire. Desire is the honey to this being   (the Brahman with material attributes or vital force)   in the sun and the eye of those who desire.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The Non-Dual Absolute Self is the one support for all that exists,   including the forms of ignorance.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.6   These quarters are like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to these quarters. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is these quarters, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing, in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"These quarters are like honey to all beings,"

The dimensions of the universe provide the honey of support to all beings.

"all beings are like honey to these quarters."

The desire of the first born or beings is the honey of creation for the universe with its quarters.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is these quarters, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing, in the body."

The vital force that arose with the desire for worldly experience is the honey of fulfilment for the event of conscious experience of hearing.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The singularity of knowledge as Consciousness is the one existence of experience.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.7   This moon is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this moon. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This moon is like honey to all beings,"

That first desire for mind is symbolised by the moon.   This desiring mind is the honey of achievement for all material beings.

"all beings are like honey to this moon."

All being who have desires to flourish within material creation are like honey to the being of the desiring mind.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body."

The being of a vital force is the being of desire.   desire is formless and immortal.
Desire is the honey of immortal existence to this being of delusion.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The singularity that is the Absolute Self is the one support for this Creation from the delusion of desire.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.8   This lightning is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this lightning. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this lightning, and the shining, immortal being identified with light in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This lightning is like honey to all beings,"

Lightning as power or lightning as illumination of knowledge still refers to the material display of lightning.
Power or knowledge is like honey to the being desiring to flourish in creation.

"all beings are like honey to this lightning."

All universal manifestation proceeds from that initial desire.   The desire of beings is honey to this creation of matter.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this lightning, and the shining, immortal being identified with light in the body."

That desire that made manifest the object of desire is honey to the ignorance of a divine vital force imagined within Creation by the ignorant.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The One Self is the source of the experience of power and knowledge in Consciousness.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.9   This cloud is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this cloud. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this cloud, and the shining, immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This cloud is like honey to all beings,"

This cloud of knowledge made manifest through the desire for creation is like honey to the desiring being.

"all beings are like honey to this cloud."

The desire of all beings to maintain ongoing creation is the honey that maintains the cloud.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this cloud, and the shining, immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body."

The sounds of creation are the sounds of Absolute knowledge made manifest through voicing one's desires.  The ignorant mistakenly ascribes this experience to a divine vital force in creation.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The One Self is the support for all experience,   both true and delusional.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.10   This ether is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this ether. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this ether, and the shining, immortal being who is (identified with) the ether in the heart, in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This ether is like honey to all beings"

This ether is the manifest space which is the honey of support to all the forms it contains.

"all beings are like honey to this ether."

Original desire is the honey that space or ether that contains all objects of desire arose from.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this ether, and the shining, immortal being who is (identified with) the ether in the heart, in the body."

The material vital force or shining being that is imagined to be the desire of the divine for material being is also seen to occupy the space within the body as well as surrounding the forms of the world.

"(These four) are but this Self"

The Non-Dual Absolute self is the one source of all manifest creation including the ether.   In truth this ether resides within the knowledge or Consciousness that supports it.   The divine does not reside within the ether.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.11   This righteousness (Dharma) is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this righteousness. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this righteousness, and the shining, immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This righteousness (Dharma) is like honey to all beings,"

This Dharma was the projection of the first born who desired to flourish within the world of his desires.   Through this Dharma the beings of creation are organised into the appearance of an existence of divine desire and reality.
This Dharma is the honey of the ongoing forgetting by those beings ignorant of the Absolute due to the illusion of permanence and their righteousness within material creation.

"all beings are like honey to this righteousness."

The desire or need of beings for material creation to have an eternal divine purpose and reality gives the honey of righteousness for Dharma.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this righteousness, and the shining, immortal being identified with righteousness in the body."

Those ignorant of their true identity with the Non-Dual Absolute,   seek the honey of divinity of a vital force and the divinity of Dharma to give the appearance of permanence to this entropy and transience.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The true Being of all beings is as the immortal eternal Non-Dual Absolute Self.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.12   This truth is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this truth. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this truths and the shining, immortal being identified with truth in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This truth is like honey to all beings,"

Desire is the cause for the existence of the material truth of all forms.   This material of existence,   "truth"   is the honey of the life of ones body.

"all beings are like honey to this truth."

The love all beings have for their form or body is the honey of desire for the continued maintenance of this material   ("truth")   form.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this truth and the shining, immortal being identified with truth in the body."

This material of creation,   or   "truth"   manifests with or as the material of desire.

"(These four) are but this Self."

All of creation itself arose from the fact of the one non-dual existence of the Absolute.

The Absolute Self is the One Truth of the material   ("truth")   of creation. This has been explained.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise The Non-Dual Absolute,  the Truth of this truth,  is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.13   This human species is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this human species. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this human species, and the shining, immortal being identified with the human species in the body. (These four) are but this Self. (This Self knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This human species is like honey to all beings,"

That first desire for mind to experience worldly knowledge resulted in the projection of the organs of the body.
Through the human body every desire for creation into many offspring ("species")   can be satisfied.
Therefore the   "human species"   is the honey of satisfaction of original desire.

"all beings are like honey to this human species."

The desire of all beings to have personal experience of flourishing through all their faculties is the honey that nurtures a species.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this human species, and the shining, immortal being identified with the human species in the body."

The vital force or shining immortal being is the honey of material desire for further creation.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The delusion that seeks fulfilment within material creation is the delusion that assumes a vital force.
All that is made manifest through delusion is transient.
All that is transient is also supported throughout its cycle by the One Absolute Self.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.14   This (cosmic) body is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this (cosmic) body. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body, and the shining, immortal being who is this (individual) self. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

"This (cosmic) body is like honey to all beings,"

This cosmic body is the material of desire.
This manifest material is the honey of being for all the forms of the universe.

"all beings are like honey to this (cosmic) body."

The material cosmos was made manifest through original desire,   The ongoing desire for creation by all beings is the honey of the cause and maintenance of this cosmic body.

"(The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body, and the shining, immortal being who is this (individual) self."

The vital force of material desire is seen by the ignorant as the honey of divine desire for material creation.

"(These four) are but this Self."

The Self Alone has true Existence.   This Self is the One Support for this Universe.

"This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all".

To Realise the Truth of The Non-Dual Self is to Realise all.   He who realises his true identity as that of the Absolute Self will realise that he is all this.
Through this Realisation the Sage renounces desire and transcends the cycle of material creation and achieves Absolute Consciousness   ("the means of becoming") all.

 

2.5.15   This Self, already mentioned, is the ruler of all beings, and the king of all beings. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel, so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self.

If one were to contemplate the construction of a cartwheel with the spokes fixed into the central hub (nave) and these spokes radiating out and holding up the rim (felloe) of the wheel,   one may meditate on the Self as being the hub and supporter of this Unity.   There is no individual,   nothing can exist or stand alone or have individual purpose because all is supported by the Self,   the hub.   The hub is like honey to the spokes,   the spokes are like honey to the rim,   the rim is the honey of the cartwheel,   the cartwheel is like honey for its desired purpose.

 

2.5.16   This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rsi (Mantra) said, '0 Asvins in human form, that terrible deed called Darhsa which you did out of greed, I will disclose as a cloud does rain (how you learnt) the meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught you through a horse's head'.

This verse and the next three verses refer to the story of how the Asvins were taught the meditations on the Self.


For completeness the story in brief is included here:-

The Ashwins possessed all secret knowledge but one, the knowledge of immortality (To Realise The Self), literally the doctrine of honey, which is sometimes identified with the knowledge of Soma. Naturally the Ashvins were willing to do anything to get it. This knowledge was possessed by the Vedic Rishi Dadhyak, son of the great Rishi Atharva, after whom the Atharva Veda was named. But Dadhyak was under a curse from the God Indra, the king of the Gods, that he must not teach this knowledge or Indra would cut his head off. Dadhyak told the Ashvins that he could not teach this knowledge because he was afraid of Indra.
The Ashwins, who possessed all magic powers, devised a trick. They told Dadhyak that they would cut of his head and keep it safe and give him the head of a horse. They could then become his pupils and through the horse's head he could teach them the Madhu Vidya. Then when Indra came and cut off his head, now that of a horse, they would give him back his original human head. This is what happened so the Ashwins received their knowledge from Dadhyak.

 

This story, just like the Upanishads in general, is heavy in symbolism and subtle meaning.  The symbolic use of the horses head in this story equates very much with the use of the horse sacrifice ritual as a vehicle for the revealing of higher truth within this Brihadaranyaka Upanishad itself.

The ashvins were wise in all knowledge but the highest.  This highest secret knowledge is the truth of the Absolute through which one would gain eternal emancipation. The Ashvins recognised that through the teacher Dadhyak they could gain this knowledge.  It is explained here that Dadhyak could not reveal the highest truth himself because the material gods of a vital force, the gods of the ignorant,  here named as Indra would be outraged. 

The material gods of the desiring man,  or vital force,  become outraged because the highest truth of the Absolute reveals such gods to be nothing more than the projections of mans desires.

The threatened punishment of cutting of the head of a teacher of this truth means that such an enlightened teacher runs the age old risk of being denied or denounced by the ignorant.  But,  through the traditionaly mutually helpful way of close cooperation between a wise teacher, willing students and mutual trust the Asvins were taught.  Even speaking through the symbolic horses head truth can be heard by those with the ears to hear it.  In this way any repercussions from the ignorant are merely suffered by the symbolic horses head.


 

2.5.17   This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rsi said, 'O Asvins, you set a horse's head on (the shoulders of) Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda. O terrible ones, to keep his word he taught you the (ritualistic) meditation on things mutually helpful connected with the sun, as also the secret (spiritual) meditation on them.'

This verse is relating the story included above.   It refers to two types of meditation,   ritualistic connected with creation, desire and its vital force,  and the higher secret spiritual meditation.   Referring to the spiritual meditation as   "secret"   means that the spiritual form is subtle,   hidden in that it cannot be guided and instructed as are rites and rituals.   "Spiritual meditation"   starts from the seed within that has been moved by the recognition of a higher Truth.   This seed of recognition is honey to The Self and The Self is the honey of emancipation to the seed.   Such meditation on The Self has been the subject of this section.

 

2.5.18   This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rsi said, 'He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet. That Supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body)'.He on account of his dwelling in all bodies is called the Purusa. There is nothing that is not covered by him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him.

"He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet"

All forms of all beings are the projection of the singularity of the Absolute Self (this singularity is knowledge Absolute),
All forms are a name and material only.   No form or material has inherent true existence.   All forms of all beings are supported by Absolute knowledge,   The Self.

" That Supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body)"

These are the words that try to explain that existence is in fact a Unity.   Being a unity there is not one thing that is truly individual.

"He on account of his dwelling in all bodies is called the Purusa."

Purusa is the experience within the singularity of Absolute consciousness of many births,  of being all forms.  This means we are all being experienced by the Absolute singularity of existence "Him".

"There is nothing that is not covered by him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him."

Nothing is complete as an individual,   all things are honey to all things.
In terms of the Self,   being the Singularity there is nothing that is not the Self.     This is for the aid of meditation.

 

2.5.19   This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rsi said, '(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form; that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. The Lord on account of Maya is perceived as manifold, for to Him are yoked ten organs, nay hundreds of them. He is the organs; He is ten, and thousands many, and infinite. That Brahman is without prior or posterior, without interior or exterior. This self, the perceiver of everything, is Brahman. This is the teaching'.

"(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form"

The Self,   the Absolute Brahman is all that exists,   it is through the forms of Creation that The Existence of the Absolute can be known.

" that form of His was for the sake of making Him known."

The meaning here is not that the Self can be known through the forms   " The Lord on account of   Maya   is perceived as manifold. "   The true meaning is that it is through the very fact of this Existence of names and forms that the existence of the Absolute Knowledge and Consciousness as the Self can be known.   That is,   the Existence of the Self can now be known but the Self   "Itself"   is unknowable.   Further to this,   It is the Non-Dual Self,   as the observer of its projected Creation that is the Knower of ItSelf.   This is the ultimate reason that one cannot know the Absolute,   because the Self cannot see Itself.

"That Brahman is without prior or posterior, without interior or exterior. This self, the perceiver of everything, is Brahman."

This Self is without origination   ("without prior")   and is immortal   ("without posterior").   The Absolute Alone is all Existence therefore without exterior and its opposite interior.   This Absolute is Self,   Brahman,   God.   This Unity manifests the Love that guides our spiritual meditation back home to the Absolute.

 

 

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.

 

Continue to Chapter Three