Invocation

Om. May no harm be done here, may the vessels of the great Seers continue in salvation, may these movements be in accord with Divine Will, may this desire be motivated by Love, may what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

 

Download EBook copy of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Commentary here.

Revised 15th April 2016

 

Chapter Six

This last chapter should not be considered as forming a part of the main body of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Further to the above,  the last sections of this chapter six are the subject matter of Smriti.   This Smriti explains the way of material prosperity   (vital force),   for the householder.   The Sruti transcends this more mundane purpose of the Smriti.
The Sruti that is the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the highest knowledge which leads to liberation from worldly desire and the creation cycle.
Therefore,   we conclude,   the inclusion of the Smriti text is not for the purpose of instruction but for the purpose of further contemplation on the way of a vital force as the way of rebirth.

Section 1.

This section considers a   Vital Force.

6.1.1   Om. He who knows that which is the oldest and greatest, becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives. The vital force is indeed the oldest and greatest. He who knows it to be such becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such.

"He who knows that which is the oldest and greatest, becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives"

This describes a vital force.   He who knows the vital force is he who first desired thereby creating a vital force for his material desires.   This vital force will be the oldest due to it arising from original desire.
His desires include the creation of children and in his line of offspring or relatives he will be eminent and oldest.

"The vital force is indeed the oldest and greatest"

Considering the vital force as the Maya of Creation,   that is,   Creation being caused by the delusion of desire then a vital force which is merely Creation supporting such desire,   would indeed be the original and therefore the oldest and greatest because it is a function of original Creation itself.

"He who knows it to be such becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives"

He who knows means he who lives according to this belief or understanding.   He assumes a vital force for the furtherance of his work and desires for wealth and children.   Therefore,   in his line of relatives this first born   vital force,   Viraj,   Prajapati,   will be the oldest.

"as well as among those of whom he wants to be such"

This is a reference to worldly desires or   "wanting".   These are the qualities of duality that consider others as separate   "existences"   and need to be figured as such into ones plans.
Further,   intuitively one may also detect in described situations involving a vital force the resulting gain over others   "becomes the oldest and greatest."   and so forth.   Such understanding is limited to duality.   It is a basic understanding of Advaita,   Non-Duality   that the delusion of duality is the cause of Creation itself and of all perceived problems of and within Creation.

 

6.1.2   He who knows the Vasistha (that which best helps to dwell or cover) becomes the Vasistha among his relatives. The organ of speech is indeed the Vasistha. He who knows it as such becomes the Vasistha among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such.

"The organ of speech is indeed the Vasistha".

The organ of speech is being described as capable of being used for self assertion or aggrandising through its wealth of knowledge.

"He who knows the Vasistha (that which best helps to dwell or cover) becomes the Vasistha among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such"

He whose meditations understand the organ of speech as a means of wealth and self promotion will achieve the worldly results (only) of a sage.
But this meditation will not transcend creation to realise the Absolute.

 

6.1.3   He who knows Pratistha (that which has steadiness) lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. The eye indeed is Pratistha, for through the eye one lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. He who knows it as such lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times.

" The eye indeed is Pratistha "

The eye is being described as the guide through which he chooses the best path through life's obstacles.

"He who knows it as such lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times"

He whose meditations   ("who knows it as such")   regards the sense organ of the eye as a true guide will find his way around the material world.
The meaning is the senses only relate to Creation itself.   To find ones way back to the Absolute one needs to meditate to transcend Creation,   for this one needs to be guided by the subtle   Buddhi,   the intellect of the heart.   It is the Intellect that is a knower of the truth.   It is truth alone that should lead,   regardless of worldly conditions.

 

6.1.4   He who knows Sampad (prosperity) attains whatever object he desires. The ear indeed is Sampad, for all these Vedas are acquired when one has the ear (intact). He who knows it to be such attains whatever object he desires.

"The ear indeed is Sampad, for all these Vedas are acquired when one has the ear (intact)".

The meaning is that scriptural knowledge is acquired through the hearing.

"He who knows it to be such attains whatever object he desires".

The meditation   ("who knows it")   here is the use of scriptural knowledge to obtain objects of worldly desire.
This is the understanding of duality through a vital force which the ignorant assume is meant for the worldly furtherance of ones being.
The one whose desire rises from the love of the truth seeks that Truth through all facilities at his disposal for truths own sake not the sake of worldly prosperity.

 

6.1.5   He who knows the abode becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people. The Manas indeed is the abode. He who knows it to be such becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people.

"The Manas indeed is the abode"

The Manas (discursive mind) is the abode of the vital force.   Indeed it is the unsupervised discursive mind led by a vital force that takes sensory input literally and derives pleasure and false motivation from them.

"He who knows it to be such becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people"

He who meditates   ("who knows it")   with the understanding led by Manas the discursive mind,   may attract the similarly misguided admiration of other deluded pleasure seeking individuals.
The Manas   (discursive mind) has to be stilled to allow Self Knowledge to arise.   Buddhi, the knower of truth needs to supervise mind,   to do this one needs to practice right meditation.

 

6.1.6   He who knows Prajati (that which has the attribute of generation) is enriched with children and animals. The seed (organ) has this attribute. He who knows it to be such is enriched with children and animals.

"He who knows Prajati (that which has the attribute of generation).... The seed (organ) has this attribute"

In the realm of the vital force the organ of generation or reproduction is naturally assumed as being vital to   "one's"   purpose in   "one's"   life.

"He who knows it to be such is enriched with children and animals"

He whose meditations   ("who knows it to be")   are based on the understanding of a vital force will assume the fulfilment of their purpose in   "their life"   through the further Creation of life within this Creation.   This duality and ignorance results from the original forgetting of one's true identity with the Non-Dual Absolute.

 

Although the following verses will tell a story of the superiority of a vital force the true understanding should be that Creation as maintained by a vital force is only in itself merely supporting the original desire of that forgetful first born.
A vital force is believed to represent ones whole existence by those who are still ignorant of the Absolute Self.   That is,   those who still suffer from the original forgetting of their identity as the Non-Dual Absolute God Self or Brahman.
The yet to become Realised aspirant in his or hers ignorance still imagines their very existence to be Limited to within creation and therefore sustained by a vital force.
A person needs to be guided by an awareness of his or her divinity as existence itself.

 

6.1.7   These organs, disputing over their respective greatness, went to Brahman and said to him, 'Which of us is the Vasistha?' He said, 'That one of you will be the Vasistha, who departing from among yourselves, people consider this body far more wretched.'

"These organs, disputing over their respective greatness, went to Brahman and said to him, 'Which of us is the Vasistha"?

The Sruti thus far has demonstrated that   "life" is limited through dependence to within material creation.   here the Sruti demonstrates the meaning that all this creation is supported from one intelligence.   That intelligence or knowledge is depicted here as a vital force,   or a "Vasistha"

"That one of you will be the Vasistha, who departing from among yourselves, people consider this body far more wretched".

Following on from above the meaning here is that the   "Vasistha"   will be the one that "All" else depends on.
It naturally follows,   due to such dependence,   that all   "This"   that is dependent is mortal, transient and therefore ultimately unreal.

 

6.1.8   The organ of speech went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as dumb people do, without speaking through the organ of speech, but living through the vital force, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the organ of speech entered.

"The organ of speech went out.... it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me"?

"We lived just as dumb people do.... So the organ of speech entered"

The meaning here is that it is not this organ that keeps us in this world.

 

6.1.9   The eye went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as blind people do, without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the eye entered.

"The eye went out.... it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me"

"We lived just as blind people do.... So the eye entered".

The meaning here is that it is not this organ that keeps us in this world.

 

6.1.10   The ear went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as deaf people do, without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the ear entered.

"The ear went out.... it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me"?

"We lived just as deaf people do.... So the ear entered".

The meaning here is that it is not this organ that keeps us in this world.

 

6.1.11   The mind went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as idiots do, without knowing through the mind, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and having children through the organ of generation.' So the mind entered.

"The mind went out.... it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me"?

"We lived just as idiots do.... So the mind entered".

The meaning here is that it is not this organ that keeps us in this world.

 

6.1.12   The organ of generation went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as eunuchs do, without having children through the organ of generation, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind.' So the organ of generation entered.

"The organ of generation went out.... it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me"?

"We lived just as eunuchs do.... So the organ of generation entered".

The meaning here is that it is not this organ that keeps us in this world.

 

6.1.13   Then as the vital force was about to go out, it uprooted those organs just as a great, fine horse from Sind pulls out the pegs to which his feet are tied. They said, 'Please do not go out, sir, we cannot live without you.' 'Then give me tribute.' 'All right.'

"Then as the vital force was about to go out, it uprooted those organs just as a great, fine horse from Sind pulls out the pegs to which his feet are tied".

"They said, 'Please do not go out, sir, we cannot live without you".

The meaning of this statement is plain,   a vital force is being depicted as the one   "organ"   or cause that keeps us in the creation cycle.

"Then give me tribute.' 'All right".

The next verse will describe the vital force in more detail through the giving of this tribute.

 

6.1.14   The organ of speech said, 'That attribute of the Vasistha which I have is yours.' The eye: 'That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours.' The ear: 'That attribute of prosperity which I have is yours.' The mind: 'That attribute of abode which I have is yours.' The organ of generation: 'That attribute of generation which I have is yours.' (The vital force said:)'Then what will be my food and my dress?' (The organs said:) 'Whatever is (known as) food, including dogs, worms, insects and moths, is your food, and water your dress.' He who knows the food of the vital force to be such, never happens to eat anything that is not food, or to accept anything that is not food. Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force.

"The organ of speech said, '...the Vasistha which I have is yours.' The eye: 'That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours.' The ear: 'That ...prosperity which I have is yours.' The mind: 'That...abode which I have is yours.' The organ of generation: 'That attribute of generation which I have is yours".

We heard in the earlier verses how the attributes of speech,   sight,   hearing,   mind and sexual drive are all of the gross material creation.   here they are being attributed to the vital force.
Further it was demonstrated that these attributes or senses cannot be the means to transcend Creation,   indeed it was shown that the person relying on their senses became more deeply engrossed or misled into further desire and attachment within the material realm.
The meaning here is that the functioning of these organs and vital force will not lead one to transcend the material realm to return home to unity with the Absolute.

"(The vital force said:)'Then what will be my food and my dress"?

The meaning of this question is to demonstrate through the answer that the vital force is purely made up of the food of desire because Creation itself is the food of desire.

"Whatever is (known as) food, including dogs, worms, insects and moths, is your food, and water your dress".

All of Creation is the food of original desire,   this has been explained in chapter one,   :-
The universe as seven types of food
As supporting the desire of the first born, which was for mind body and worldly knowledge this Creation will indeed support such desire,   but as we have seen this desire caused the forgetting of our unity and identity as the Non-Dual Absolute.
This ignorance which is that forgetting causes the desire to perpetuate material creation and as such a vital force comes to be seen as essential for our needs instead of its true identity as perpetuating this cycle of rebirth and death.

"He who knows the food of the vital force to be such, never happens to eat anything that is not food, or to accept anything that is not food".

He who meditates on the validity of the material realm with its vital force will not transcend this life and will always have to seek sustenance within this creation of desire because he,   at present,   he will not   "accept anything that is not food"   (he will not seek the finer food of knowledge of the Absolute)   this is the meaning here.

"Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force".

The wise will remember every time they feed the form of the body   ("water")   of the necessity to feed the intellect   ("removing the nakedness of the vital force")   with the fine food of the knowledge of the Absolute because the wise seek emancipation from this life,   the wise meditate on the Absolute alone.

The wise and all knowing Sruti demonstrates its knowledge of all levels of understanding from duality leading to the highest truth of non-duality Advaita.

 

Section 2.

The subject of this section is transmigration,   or ones journey,   as it were,   after the death of the form dependent on ones level of realisation in Consciousness.

6.2.1   Svetaketu, the grandson of Aruna, came to the assembly of the Pancalas. He approached Pravahana, the son of Jivala, who was being waited on (by his servants). Seeing him the King addressed him, 'Boy!' He replied, 'Yes. 'Have you been taught by your father?' He said, 'Yes.'

We understand form Shankaracharya's commentary that Svetaketu went to the assembly of the Pancalas who were famous for their learning to show off his own knowledge.

 

6.2.2   'Do you know how these people diverge after death?' 'No,' said he. 'Do you know how they return to this world?' 'No' said he. 'Do you know how the other world is never filled by so many people dying thus again and again?' 'No,' said he. 'Do you know after how many oblations are offered water (the liquid offerings) rises up possessed of a human voice (or under the name of man) and speaks?' 'No,' said he. 'Do you know the means of access to the way of the gods, or that to the way of the Manes, doing which people attain either the way of the gods or the way of the Manes?' We have heard the words of the Mantra: 'I have heard of two routes for men, leading to the Manes and the gods. Going along them all this is united. They lie between the father and the mother (earth and heaven).' 'He said, 'I know not one of them.'

The king having noticed Svetaketu and guessing his purpose has wounded the boys pride by asking him these questions none of which Svetaketu knew the answers to.
These questions are the purpose of this story and will be answered in following verses.

 

6.2.3   Then the King invited him to stay. The boy, disregarding the invitation to stay, hurried away. He came to his father and said to him, 'Well, did you not tell me before that you had (fully) instructed me?' 'How (did you get hurt), my sagacious child?''That wretch of a Ksatriya asked me five questions, and I knew not one of them'. 'Which are they?' 'These,' and he quoted their first words.

In addition to a lack of knowledge Svetaketu displays poor grace and a lack of wisdom in ignoring the king's invitation to stay in the learned assembly.

 

6.2.4   The father said, 'My child, believe me, whatever I knew I told you every bit of it. But come, let us go there and live as students.' 'You go alone, please.' At this Gautama came to where King Pravahana, the son of Jivala, was giving audience. The King gave him a seat, had water brought for him, and made him the reverential offering. Then he said, 'We will give revered Gautama, a boon.'

The scenes described by the Sruti are plainly authentic and a lesson in themselves of conscious considered behaviour.   The father is displaying a greater wisdom than his son despite his not having this knowledge because his love of knowledge is shown to be greater than his pride.

 

6.2.5   Aruni said, 'You have promised me this boon. Please tell me what you spoke to my boy about.'

Aruni is of course asking to be taught the wisdom his son told him of.

 

6.2.6   The King said, 'This comes under heavenly boons, Gautama. Please ask some human boon.'

The king appears to be testing the boys father.   As we see in the next verse the king is aware that the father needs no more material   ("human")   wealth it is spiritual   ("heavenly")   wealth the father is seeking.

 

6.2.7   Aruni said, 'You know that I already have gold, cattle and horses, maid-servants, retinue, and dress. Be not ungenerous towards me alone regarding this plentiful, infinite and inexhaustible (wealth).' 'Then you must seek it according to form, Gautama.' 'I approach you (as a student).' The ancients used to approach a teacher simply through declaration. Aruni lived as a student by merely announcing that he was at his service.

The father presses his request and cites valid precedence.   This highlights how valued scriptural knowledge was.

 

6.2.8   The King said: Please do not take offence with us, Gautama, as your paternal grandfathers did not (with ours). Before this, this learning never rested with a Brahmana. But I shall teach it to you; for who can refuse you when you speak like this?

It seems the father's love of wisdom for wisdoms sake has guided his request to the king in such a way that it could not be honourably refused.   The subject of this story,   the answers to the original five questions now follows.

 

6.2.9   That world (heaven), O Gautama, is fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinder, and the intermediate quarters its sparks. In this fire the gods offer faith (liquid oblations in subtle form). Out of that offering King Moon is born (a body is made in the moon for the sacrificer).

This verse answers the kings fourth question,   "Do you know after how many oblations are offered water (the liquid offerings) rises up possessed of a human voice (or under the name of man) and speaks?"

"That world (heaven), O Gautama, is fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinder, and the intermediate quarters its sparks"

"That world"   described as   "heaven"   represents the world through which one obtains the results of one's desires.
Desires are obtained through the act of Creation   "fire"

"the sun is its fuel, the rays its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinder, and the intermediate quarters its sparks"

This describes the Universe or this Creation.  This Creation was caused through the original desire and is maintained as the means of Creating the objects of further desire.   This is the heaven of the one who desires because it provides for those desires.

"In this fire the gods offer faith (liquid oblations in subtle form)"

This faith is in the subtle form of meditation or prayer,   The desire is in the subtle form of the request through name   (knowledge).

"Out of that offering King Moon is born (a body is made in the moon for the sacrificer)"

"Moon"   is mind.   The meaning here is that through his practicing of rites the sacrificer obtains the Consciousness of the reborn   (rebirth signified by the new body waiting in the moon).

 

6.2.10   Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is fire, the year is its fuel, the clouds its smoke, lightning its flame, thunder its cinder, and the rumblings its sparks. In this fire the gods offer King Moon. Out of that offering rain is produced.

"Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is fire",

Rain maintains this world or planet both literally as water and metaphorically as the unmanifest knowledge from which it was Created.
The   "fire"   represents the means of further Creation.   The meaning is that this planet is maintained by rain and water and it is the means of further creation or realisation of desires.

"the year is its fuel",

This created planet is mortal and burns time.

"the clouds its smoke",

The natural   "machinery"   of this planet involves the cycling of the oceans through water vapour   (clouds)   and rain.

"lightning its flame",

Again here depicting the natural action of the clouds making lightning.

"thunder its cinder",

As above depicting thunder and cinder as a by-product of nature's machine.

"and the rumblings its sparks".

The noise of the thunder is the sparks from the machine.

"In this fire the gods offer King Moon",

The reborn man,   reborn into the creation cycle of birth and death due to his failure to Realise the Non-Dual Absolute Self due to his belief in practicing his rites, once again becomes the fuel or cause for this ongoing Universe or Creation of desire.

"Out of that offering rain is produced".

So this man who is ignorant due to his original forgetting of his identity as the Non-Dual Absolute is once again reborn due to his failure to realise his True Self in his previous life experience.
As described above this reborn ignorant man once again become the fuel,   here rain,   that maintains this fire of creation.

 

6.2.11   This world, O Gautama, is fire, the earth is its fuel, fire its smoke, the night its flame, the moon its cinder, and the stars its sparks. In this fire the gods offer rain. Out of that offering food is produced.

"This world, O Gautama, is fire",

This world exists as the means   "fire"   of further creation of objects of desire,   this has been explained.

"the earth is its fuel",

The earth,   this material world,   is mortal and is consumed or dies eventually despite its present maintenance.

"fire its smoke",

Smoke as the product of a machine burning fuel is likened to creation itself as the product of the fire of creation.

"the night its flame",

The consideration of the fire of Creation and the night hours means the results of these desires leads one via the southern route to a rebirth within the Creation cycle.
This is the southern route transited without the sun at night.  

"the moon its cinder",

If this world is the fire of the machine at night then the moon is seen as its By-product   "cinder".

"and the stars its sparks".

Likewise this machinery of desire operates in the ignorance of darkness,   in fact the night is also maintained by desire as all time is,   then the stars are the sparks of the machine.
Also the meaning is this whole Universe is the product of this machinery of desire.

"In this fire the gods offer rain",

Rain as water enables the cycle of the creation.

"Out of that offering food is produced".

Rain produces eatable food of man.   Man produces the objects of his desire which is the food of creation.   The cycle of Creation is maintained by desire which is the cycle of the reborn symbolised by the offering of the gods.

 

6.2.12   Man, O Gautama, is fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the vital force its smoke, speech its flame, the eye its cinder, and the ear its sparks. In this fire the gods offer food. Out of that offering the seed is produced.

"Man, O Gautama, is fire",

Man is the embodiment of desire so it is from man that the fire of Creation flares.

"the open mouth is its fuel",

The   "open mouth"   signifies the hunger of desire and desire is the fuel of the fire of Creation.

"the vital force its smoke",

The vital force is the by-product of desire just as smoke is the by-product of a machine.

"speech its flame",

Speech sounds desire and rouses the flames of the fire of creation.

"the eye its cinder",

The eye and all sense organs fuel the machinery of desire.

"and the ear its sparks".

Likewise the sense of hearing is a by-product of the fiery machine of desire.

"In this fire the gods offer food".

The gods are seen as the deities that maintain creation through the ignorance that leads to the repetition of the life experience.

"Out of that offering the seed is produced".

The seed is the seed of desire for further creation.

 

6.2.13   Woman, O Gautama, is fire. In this fire the gods offer the seed. Out of that offering a man is born. He lives as long as he is destined to live. Then, when he dies:-

"Woman, O Gautama, is fire".

Woman is the embodiment of all worldly desire.   All desire is the desire for completion.   Following the original forgetting of The Divine or one's true completion as being a unity as the Non-Dual Absolute,   men and women mistakenly seek completion through further material Creation.   This desire for further Creation is the ultimate aim of all other worldly desires.   There is the duality of roles in nature but ultimately it is woman that embodies the means of fulfilling worldly desires.
As the deliverer of further Creation Woman embodies the fire of Creation.

"In this fire the gods offer the seed".

Supported by this created world of food represented by the deities or gods man and woman rear the seed of further creation.

"Out of that offering a man is born",

Creation is extended or reborn through the ignorant desiring completion through material expansion.

"He lives as long as he is destined to live. Then, when he dies" :-

To be materially born is to be materially mortal in accordance with the knowledge of the Absolute.

 

6.2.14   They carry him to be offered in the fire. The fire becomes his fire, the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke, the flame his flame, the cinder his cinder, and the sparks his sparks. In this fire the gods offer the man. Out of that offering the man emerges radiant.

"They carry him to be offered in the fire",

They carry him after his death to the funeral pyre.

"The fire becomes his fire",

This has the meaning that in this funeral cremation ceremony the fire that ritually consumes the body of the man is seen as   "his fire of purification".

"the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke, the flame his flame, the cinder his cinder, and the sparks his sparks".

The totality of this cremation ceremony is for the elevation of this man according to his life of having completed all the necessary rites for his spiritual elevation.

"In this fire the gods offer the man",

So as said above this man is the   "offer"   to a higher realm due to his previous practicing of rites.

"Out of that offering the man emerges radiant".

This means the man has transcended this cycle of birth and death.

This renewed man is radiant due to his practicing of rites in his previous life.
With only this much understanding he would remain ignorant of the knowledge and the means of attaining the ultimate liberation through the Realisation of the Absolute Self.

 

6.2.15   Those who know this as such, and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest, reach the deity identified with the flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward, from them the deity identified with the world of the gods, from him the sun, and from the sun the deity of lightning. (Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years. They no more return to this world.

"Those who know this as such, and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest, reach the deity identified with the flame",

Those who know it as such means those that meditate as such.   The ultimate meaning here is that higher Consciousness or rebirth is indeed achieved through meditation.
But,   due to these meditations being within the awareness of only the conditioned or Satya-Brahman then the results will be commensurate with the Satya-Brahman.   That is these meditations will not transcend this Creation to Realise the Absolute Brahman which is the only way of true emancipation.

"from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward",

Here is being described the northern route out of the cycle of birth and death.   The southern route that results from the practice of rites only is said to lead back to rebirth within the cycle of creation.

"from them the deity identified with the world of the gods, from him the sun, and from the sun the deity of lightning".

The northern route is being described as through or guided by deities.

"(Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years".

So it is being said that these meditations on the Satya-Brahman leads to residence within Creation which transcends birth and death but do not transcend this Creation of ignorance itself.

"They no more return to this world".

Having transcended the Creation cycle of birth and death then they will have transcended this world.

These verses state that the man who practices rites with meditation is not reborn as man again but is reborn to higher realms.
The Sruti describes the knowledge and the paths that lead to higher and higher states.   But none of these leads to ultimate emancipation through Self Knowledge.

 

6.2.16   While those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity and austerity, reach the deity of smoke, from him the deity of the night, from him the deity of the fort-night in which the moon wanes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels southward, from them the deity of the world of the Manes, and from him the moon. Reaching the moon they become food. There the gods enjoy them as the priests drink the shining Soma juice (gradually, saying, as it were), 'Flourish, dwindle.' And when their past work is exhausted, they reach (become like) this ether, from the ether air, from air rain, and from rain the earth. Reaching the earth they become food. Then they are again offered in the fire of man, thence in the fire of woman, whence they are born (and perform rites) with a view to going to other worlds. Thus do they rotate. While those others who do not know these two ways become insects and moths, and these frequently biting things (gnats and mosquitoes).

"While those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity and austerity, reach the deity of smoke, from him the deity of the night, from him the deity of the fort-night in which the moon wanes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels southward, from them the deity of the world of the Manes, and from him the moon. Reaching the moon they become food".

The meaning here is that the well meaning man,   who is austere and charitable and who practices rites but is nevertheless ignorant of the Absolute and does not practice any form of meditation to realise his higher Consciousness Will travel the Southern route of rebirth back into the Creation cycle of birth and death.   That is he remains as the food of Creation.

"There the gods enjoy them as the priests drink the shining Soma juice (gradually, saying, as it were), 'Flourish, dwindle".

This means that this man of good deeds pleases the gods and flourishes in life but being ignorant of the Absolute all his good deeds dwindle at his death and he alone suffers rebirth via the southern route.

"And when their past work is exhausted, they reach (become like) this ether, from the ether air, from air rain, and from rain the earth. Reaching the earth they become food".

Reborn back to this world,   this earth he once again becomes the food of Creation.

"Then they are again offered in the fire of man, thence in the fire of woman, whence they are born (and perform rites) with a view to going to other worlds. Thus do they rotate".

Reborn back into Creation he is described as once again the man of good intentions practicing rites,   and desiring a wife and children and so forth.   But again he fails to realise higher Consciousness through meditation so once again his worldly merit dies with his form and he once again   "rotates"   or suffers the same cycle of rebirth and death.

"While those others who do not know these two ways become insects and moths, and these frequently biting things (gnats and mosquitoes)".

This verse describes those that do not even practice rites or meditation,   that is those who have no Divine awareness or aspirations.
The meaning here is that this person who was born into the Consciousness or life experience of mankind lived a life of ways and means without achieving any Consciousness of the Divine.   Consequently this person suffered the rebirth or lower Consciousness of an insect.

Needless to say none of the above ways is the way of attaining Self Realisation,   the only true way of emancipation.
The wise and all knowing Sruti demonstrates its knowledge of all levels of understanding from duality leading to the highest truth of non-duality Advaita.

 

Section 3.

6.3.1   He who wishes to attain greatness (should perform.) on an auspicious day in a fortnight in which the moon waxes, and under a male constellation, during the northward march of the sun, ( a sacrifice in the following manner): He should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads (i.e. live on milk), collect in a cup or bowl made of fig wood all herbs and their grains, sweep and plaster (the ground), purify the offerings in the prescribed manner, interpose the Mantha (paste made of those things), and offer oblations with the following Mantras: 'O Fire, to all those gods under you, who spitefully frustrate men's desires, I offer their share. May they, being satisfied, satisfy me with all objects of desire Svaha. To that all procuring deity who turns out spiteful under your protection, thinking she is the support of all, 'I offer this stream of clarified butter. Svaha.'

The final two sections of verses in the Upanishad are from Smriti.   The rites to be described relate to the previous sections of this chapter in that those sections described the path of rebirth that the practice of rites would lead to.   hear are described such rites to realise the desire for a son.   The understanding is that the desire for a son is the desire to continue to live within Creation through the further creation of a son.   This desire will win the father the world,  that is rebirth into the Creation cycle.   Their relevance to the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in general is in their devotion to the vital force.   This section explains the rites   (the Mantha)   to perform to gain greatness and prosperity which will empower him to perform the higher rites detailed in section four in order to gain a son to his desire.
The intention of the Brihadaranyaka Sruti is to highlight the enslavement to material desire through the delusion of duality that devotion to the concept of vital force and material understanding leads to.
It follows that the rites and rituals described within the thirteen verses of this section and also the verses of the next section do not in themselves have relevance to the purpose or higher meaning of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
The aspirant who through practice is guided by   Buddhi   will be further reminded of the love and reality of the Non-Dual Absolute upon seeing the contrast between the higher reality of Advaita and the duality of purpose displayed here.   This is the meaning.
But it should be remembered that the Smriti represents guidance for the virtuous.   the Smriti is Hindu Dharma and the very act of devotion to its way leads to purification and higher awareness.
But the highest achievement of Self Realisation and emancipation from the Creation cycle is only achieved through renunciation and meditation which is the purpose of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Sruti.
Until one overcomes this ignorance of duality and finds his or her way to the realisation of the Self they will not find everlasting peace and freedom.

 

6.3.2   Offering oblations in the fire saying, 'Svaha to the oldest, Svaha to the greatest,' he drips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste. Offering oblations in the fire saying, 'Svaha to the vital force, Svaha. to the Vasistha,' he drips the remnant, etc. Offering oblations saying, 'Svaha to the organ of speech, Svaha. to that which has steadiness,' he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, 'Svaha. to the eye, Svaha to prosperity,' he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, 'Svaha. to the ear, Svaha to the abode,' he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, 'Svaha to the Manas, Svaha to Prajati,' he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, 'Svaha to the organ of generation,' he drips, etc.

The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.
Within the Consciousness of duality no matter how scrupulously one follows the scriptures ultimate ignorance of the Self will give rise to desires and attachments and so forth and dissatisfaction.

 

6.3.3   Offering an oblation in the fire saying, 'Svaha to fire,' he drips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the moon,' he drips, etc Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the earth, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the sky,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to heaven,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the earth, sky and heaven,'' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the Brahmana,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the Ksatriya,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the past,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the future,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to the whole,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to all,' he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, 'Svaha to Prajapati,' he drips, etc.

The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.
Ultimately all is transient within creation. In spite of all rituals the attendant miseries of transience and decay are inevitable and eventually one will suffer these. At that time the wise seek that which is eternal.

 

6.3.4   Then he touches the paste saying, 'You move (as the vital force), you burn (as fire), you are infinite (as Brahman), you are still (as the sky). You combine everything in yourself. You are the sound 'Him,' and are uttered as HiriY (in the sacrifice (by the Prastotr). You are the Udgltha and are chanted (by the Udgatr). You are recited (by the Adhvaryu) and recited The paste is identified with its deity, the cosmic vital force. Hence epithets applicable to the latter are used with reference to it. back (by the Agnldhra). You are fully ablaze; in a humid (cloud). You are omnipresent, and master. You are food (as the moon), and light (as fire). You are death, and you are that in which all things merge.

The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.
Through awakening to the need for seeking the eternal such a being will recognise within the Upanishads the path to the Knowledge of the Absolute Self.

 

6.3.5   Then he takes it up saying, 'You know all (as the vital force); we too are aware of your greatness. The vital force is the king, the lord, the ruler. May it make me king, lord and ruler!'

The cause and results of ignorance are clearly demonstrated in this verse. The desire to be king, lord and ruler will be a result of the ignorance of the unity of the Self. When one imagines duality then the need arises for self power. This fear of others and desire to rise above them will reinforce ones ignorance of The Self.
Further to this without the clear guiding knowledge that comes with knowing the Self one easily falls prey to further forms of duality. Here careless talk of a Vital Force has degenerated into a vital force with independent being. Such ignorance and duality causes the reality of the Absolute to be a step further removed.

 

6.3.6   Then he drinks it saying, 'The radiant sun is adorable; The winds are blowing sweetly, the rivers are shedding honey, may the herbs be sweet unto us! Svaha to the earth. Glory we meditate upon; May the nights and days be charming, and the dust of the earth be sweet, may heaven, our father, be gracious! Svaha to the sky. May he direct our intellect; May the Soma creeper be sweet unto us, may the sun be kind, may the quarters be helpful to us! Svaha to heaven.' Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and the whole Madhumati, and says at the end, 'May I be all this! Svaha to the earth, sky and heaven.' Then he drinks the whole remnant, washes his hands, and lies behind the fire with his head to the east. In the morning he salutes the sun saying, 'Thou art the one lotus of the quarters; may I be the one lotus of men!' then he returns the way he went, sits behind the fire, and repeats the line of teachers.

Eventually this seeker will come to let all implements of desire fall from his hands.  Opening his heart to that which even now he knows is the witness to all his efforts he will surrender all desires to That greater understanding.
With the love that comes for the good of all he will make the decision that his will should be that of the Divine will.
Through the Grace that comes with the aligning with truth he will see clearly the futility of work and desire to seek gain in the transience and decay of creation.

 

6.3.7   Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, taught this to his pupil Yajnavalkya, the Vajasaneya, and said, 'Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout.'

Now the line of teachers

 

6.3.9   Madhuka, the son of Paingi, again taught this to his pupil Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, and said, 'Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout.'

 

6.3.10   Then Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, taught this to his pupil Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, and said, 'Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout.'

 

6.3.11   Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, again taught this to Satyakama, the son of Jabala, and said, 'Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout.'

 

6.3.12   And Satyakama, the son of Jabala, in his turn, taught this to his pupils and said, 'Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout. 'One must not teach this to any one but a son or a pupil.'

 

6.3.13   Four things are made of fig wood: the ladle, the bowl, the fuel and the two mixing rods. The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice, barley, sesamum, beans, Arm, Priyarigu, wheat, lentils, pulse and vetches. They should be crushed and soaked in curds, honey and clarified butter, and offered as an oblation.

All objects, all forms, all names are but material, all material is of that knowledge of the Absolute Self Alone.

 

Section 4.

6.4.1   The earth is the essence of all these beings, water the essence of the earth, herbs of water, flowers of herbs, fruits of flowers, man of fruits, and the seed of man.

This section describes traditional rites to be performed to produce the desired offspring.
It has been explained more fully at the beginning of the previous section   (section three)   that these last sections of the Upanishad are from Smriti.   The purpose of this final section of Smriti is to explain the rites to obtain a son to ones desire.
A student of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad will understand the duality and delusion of desire within material creation that these verses display.   That is their very purpose.   It follows therefore that the actual meaning within these verses is not the relevance of their inclusion here.   Their relevance is to highlight by contrast the transcendent Realisation of Advaita.

 

6.4.2   Prajapati thought, 'Well, let me make an abode for it,' and he created woman.

As stated this is very much natural lore.

 

6.4.6   If man sees his reflection in water, he should recite the following Mantra: '(May the gods grant) me lustre, manhood, reputation, wealth and merits.' She (his wife) is indeed the goddess of beauty among women. Therefore he should approach this handsome woman and speak to her.

The Smriti is saying it should be the need for children that brings husband and wife together.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

7. If she is not willing, he should buy her over; and if she is still unyielding, he should strike her with a stick or with the hand and proceed, uttering the following Mantra, 'I take away your reputation,' etc. She is then actually discredited.

Edit. There is a question in the Q&A section regarding this verse

The rites here should be placed in the context of the time of course.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.8   If she is willing, he should proceed, uttering the following Mantra: 'I transmit reputation into you,' and they both become reputed.

To be honourably married   (including in the physical sense)   would be essential for the good reputation of both husband,   wife and their families.

 

6.4.12   If a man's wife has a lover whom he wishes to injure, he should put the fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread stalks of reed and Kusa grass in an inverse way, and offer the reed tips, soaked in clarified butter, in the fire in an inverse way, saying, 'Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy Prana andApana, such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy sons and animals, such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy Vedic rites and those done according to the Smrti, such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy hopes and expectations, such and such'. The man whom a Brahmana with knowledge of this ceremony curses, departs from this world emasculated and shorn of his merits. Therefore one should not wish even to cut jokes with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this ceremony, for he who has such knowledge becomes an enemy.

The Smriti provides rites,   rituals and law to take a young couple through the trials of courtship, marriage, marriage problems to the having of a family.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.13   If anybody's wife has the monthly sickness, she should drink for three days out of a cup (Karhsa). No Sudra man or woman should touch her. After three nights she should bathe, put on a new cloth, and be put to thresh rice.

Again this is traditional and scriptural teaching whose only relevance is in the context of the time.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.14   He who wishes that his son should be born fair, study one Veda and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in milk, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.15   He who wishes that his son should be born tawny or brown, study two Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in curd, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge. At one time the distinction between science and religion was very small.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.16   He who wishes that his son should be born dark with red eyes, study three Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in water, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.17   He who wishes that a daughter should be born to him who would be a scholar and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked with sesamum, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a daughter.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.18   He who wishes that a son should be born to him who would be a reputed scholar, frequenting the assemblies and speaking delightful words, would study all the Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked with the meat of a vigorous bull or one more advanced in years, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.19   In the very morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the mode of Sthall-paka, and offers Sthalipaka oblations again and again, saying, 'Svaha to fire, Svaha to Anumati, Svaha. to the radiant sun who produces infallible results.' After offering he takes up (the remnant of the cooked food), eats part of it and gives the rest to his wife. Then he washes his hands, fills the water vessel and sprinkles her thrice with that water, saying, 'Get up from here, Visvavasu, and find out another young woman (who is) with her husband.'

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.20   He embraces her saying, 'I am the vital force, and you are speech; you are speech, and I am the vital force ; I am Saman, and you are Rc;I am heaven, and you are the earth; come, let us strive together so that we may have a male child.'

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.24   When (the son) is born, he should bring in the fire, take him in his lap, put a mixture of curd and clarified butter in a cup, and offer oblations again and again with that, saying, 'Growing in this home of mine (as the son), may I maintain a thousand people! May (the goddess of fortune) never depart with children and animals from his line! Svaha. The vital force that is in me, I mentally transfer to you. Svaha. If I have done anything too much or too little in this ceremony, may the all knowing beneficent fire make it just right for me, neither too much nor too little! Svaha.'

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.25   Then putting (his mouth) to the child's right ear, he should thrice repeat, 'Speech, speech.' Next mixing curd, honey and clarified butter, he feeds him with (a strip of) gold not obstructed (by anything), saying, 'I put the earth into you, I put the sky into you, I put heaven into you, I put the whole of the earth, sky and heaven into you.'

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.26   Then he gives him a name, 'You are Veda (knowledge).' That is his secret name.

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.27   Then he hands him to his mother to be suckled, saying, 'O Sarasvati, that breast of thine which is stored with results, is the sustainer of all, full of milk, the obtainer of wealth (one's deserts) and generous, and through which thou, nourishest all who are worthy of it (the gods etc.) transfer that here (to my wife, for my babe) to suck.'

The Smriti continues imparting traditional knowledge.
The reality of Advaita transcends the purpose of this knowledge.

 

6.4.28   Then he addresses the mother: 'You are the adorable Arundharl, the wife of Vasistha; you have brought forth a male child with the help of me, who am a man. Be the mother of many sons, for you have given us a son.' Of him who is born as the child of a Brahmana with this particular knowledge, they say, 'You have exceeded your father, and you have exceeded your grandfather. You have reached the extreme limit of attainment through your splendour, fame and Brahmanical power.'

Both parents and the newborn child should face the unity of the Absolute Self and know their selves to be one Consciousness with that unity. They should realise their bodies to be transient forms supported by the knowledge of the Absolute.   Both parents should know their child to be of form only and that form to be unreal and mortal (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.8.)   As such from now on they should be moving in awareness that they are performing the will of the Self. They should come to know reality and have no attachments desires or aversions within creation.

The Smriti has demonstrated its knowledge of rites and rituals for those as yet ignorant of the Reality of the Non-Dual Absolute.
The Advaitin aspirant by nature has transcended the lessons of duality in the above sections and verses.

 

Section 5.

6.5.1   Now the line of teachers: The son of Pautimasi (received it) from the son of Katya.yanl. He from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. He from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Aupasvasri. He from the son of another Parasari. He from the son of Katyayam. The son of Katyayam from the son of Kau&kl. The son of Kau&ki from the son of AlambI and the son of Vaiyaghrapadl. The son of Vaiyaghrapadl from the son of Kanvi and the son of Kapi. The son of Kapl

 

6.5.2   From the son of Atreyl. The son of Atreyl from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvajl. He from the son of Parasari-. The son of Paraiari from the son of Vatsi. The son of Vatsi from the son of another Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Varkaruni. He from the son of another Varkaruni. This one from the son of Artabhagl. He from the son of Saungi. The son of Saungi from the son of Sarhkru. He from the son of Alambayanl. He again from the son of Alambl. The son of AlambI from the son of Jayanti. He from the son of Mandukayanl. He in his turn from the son of Manduki. The son of Manduki from the son of Sandili. The son of Sandili from the son of Rathitari. He from the son of Bhaluki. The son of Bhaluki from the two sons of Krauncikl. They from the son of Vaidabhrfi. He from the son of Karsa-keyl. He again from the son of Praclnayogl. He from the son of Samjlvl. The son of Samjlvl from Asurivasin, the son of Prasni. The son of Prasni from Asurayana. He from Asuri. Asuri-

 

6.5.3   From Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. Uddalaka from Aruna. Aruna from Upavesi. Upavesl from Kusn. Kusri from Vajasravas. He from Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga. He from Asita, the son of Varsa-gana. He from Harita Kasyapa. He from Silpa Kasyapa. This one from Kasyapa, the son of Nidhruva. He from Vac. She from Ambhinl. She from the sun. These white Yajuses received from the sun are explained by Yajnavalkya Vajasaneya.

 

6.5.4   The same up to the son of Samjivi. The son of SarhjivI from Mahdukayani. Mandii-kayani from Mandavya. Mandavya from Kautsa. Kautsa from Mahitthi. He from Vamakaksayana. He from handily. Sandilya from Vatsya. Vatsya from Kusri. KuSri from Yajnavacas, the son of Rajastamba. He from Tura, the son of Kavasi. He from Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha). Prajapati through his relation to Brahman (the Vedas). Brahman is self-born. Salutation to Brahman.

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Maya   is illusion or the veiling power of the Absolute by which it manifests the world.

Manas   is the lower discursive processing mind,   it receives and knows only sensory input.   Manas needs to be supervised through Buddhi.

Buddhi   is the Higher awakened intellect of the heart.  Through a refined ability to discriminate it knows Truth and can decide.   Mind needs to be supervised by Buddhi.

Aum   is described by the Mandukya Upanishad  "A"   sounds the beginning of creation when all material existence was projected as Brahman;   "U"   represents the maintaining of this universe,   and   "M"   symbolizes the final part of the cycle of Creation when the Absolute Brahman reduces existence back to Itself alone.

Gunas   Three conceptual qualities named   "Gunas"   are generally accepted to be associated with the process of material creation.   They are named rajas,   (creative energy),   sattva, (an equilibrium of energy),   and tamas,   (a withdrawing of energy).   The entire process of creation is considered in terms of energy balanced between these states of Gunas.

Udgitha   A part of the Sama-Veda   (the holy syllable OM)   chanted as part of the sacrifice ritual.

Hotr   The hotr,   priest initiated the sacrifice ritual by inviting the gods to the ritual through chanting hymns from the Rig-Veda.

Adhvaryu   The Adhvaryu priest was responsible for the overall performance of the ritual.   He chanted hymns from the Atharvaveda and with his knowledge ensured that making offerings to the gods followed correct procedure.

Udgatr   The Udgatr priest prepared the ritual and sang hymns of praise from the Samaveda inviting the gods to attend.

Visvadevas   Regarding all of the gods of the Vedas.

Atigrahas   An Object that can be Sensed.   An attraction, through the sense organs.

Grahas   The tendency to detect and hold through that sense as a form of bondage or death.

Gandharva   Male nature spirits that can act as messengers between the gods and humans.

Ugras   The Ugras were those whose fathers were Ksatriya there name identifies them as violent.   They were known for their fighting strength.

 

*   *   *

 

 

 

 

 

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.